1. Contents Introduction Sir Syed Ahmed Khan Maulana Shaukat

 

1. Contents Introduction Sir
Syed Ahmed Khan Maulana Shaukat Ali Mohammad Ali Jouhar Allama Iqbal
Quaid-e-Azam Liaquat Ali Khan
2. Role of Personalities in Pakistan
MovementintroductionThe Pakistan Movement or Tehrik-e-Pakistan refers to
the successful historical movement againstBritish and Indian to have an
independent Muslim state named Pakistan created from the separation ofthe
north-western region of the Indian subcontinent.This movement was led by
Muhammad Ali Jinnah, along with other prominent founding fathers
ofPakistan including Allama Iqbal, Liaqat Ali Khan.The founder of that
word “Pakistan” is Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. The movement ultimately achieved
success in 1947 and it named Pakistan. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan Sir Syed Ahmed
Khan is also known as the Syed Ahmed Taqvi. They was the indian educator andpolitician
and islamic reformer. They born in Dehli,Mugal Emperor.Movements done by
the Sir Syed Ahmed 1. Aligarh Movement 2. Aligarh musllim theory 3. Two
Nation theoryAfter the war of independence 1857 the condition of the
muslim was too bad. The muslims remain kingfor centuries before british.
British were silent because they snatch the government. They damage
thepolitical and sociological condition of the muslims. Hindus were also
against muslims and they were withthe British.British Movements 1. They
murder about the 5lakh muslims. 2. They snatch their properties. 3. Make
bad economy. 4. They occupied on trade. 5. They drop the muslims from the
army.Sir syed was the protector of the muslims they make muslims heart
strong.Sir syed put a movement”Movement Aligarh”.There were two
purpoes of it. 1. Education 2. Friendship of muslims and british.In the
1832 they make English language more important than persian
language.Through the English themuslims cant get any knowledge. sir syed
gave them idea to learn the english.
3. 1st movement of the Sir syed is
that they made the school in “Illah Abad”. After this they made
a newschool in “Gazi Poor”. In which they can learn english.Sir
syed gave them the idea of the Two nation theory.They says that the hindus
and the muslims are thetwo different religion their traditioins and
cultures are different they cant live together.Two Nation TheorySir Syed
Ahmed Khan, the pioneer of two nation theory, used the word ‘two nation’
for Hindus andMuslims after being convinced of the Hindus and Congress
hatred, hostility and prejudice for theMuslims.The entire freedom movement
revolved around the two nation theory which was introduced by Sir
SyedAhmed Khan. He considered all those lived in India as one nation and
was a great advocate of Hindu-Muslim unity. Speaking at the meeting of
Indian Association he said:”I look to both Hindus and Muslims with the
same eyes and consider them as my own eyes. By the word’Nation’ I mean
only Hindus and Muslims and nothing else. We, Hindus and Muslims live
together on thesame soil under the same government. Our interests and
problems are common, and therefore, Iconsider the two factions as one
nation.”Sir Syed Ahmed Khan did his best to make the Muslims realize their
differences with the Hindus withregard to religions, social and language,
rational and international identity and for this purpose hediverted
attention of the Indian Muslims towards a new idea of “Two Nation” or “Two
entities.”After Hindi-Urdu controversy Sir Syed felt that it was not possible
for Hindus and Muslims to progress asa single nation. He said:”I am
convinced now that Hindus and Muslims could never become one nation as
their religion and wayof life was quite distinct from each other.” Maulana
Shaukat AliShaukat Ali was born in 1873 in Rampur state in what is today
Uttar Pradesh. He was educated at theAligarh Muslim University. He was
extremely fond of playing cricket, captaining the university team.Mahatma
Gandhi brought him into politics.Ali served in the civil service of United
Provinces of Oudh and Agra from 1896 to 1913.Shaukat Ali helped his
brother Mohammed Ali publish the Urdu weekly Hamdard and the English
weeklyComrade. In 1919, while jailed for publishing what the British
charged as seditious materials andorganizing protests, he was elected as
the first president of the Khilafat conference. He was re-arrestedand
imprisoned from 1921 to 1923 for his support to Mahatma Gandhi and the
Indian National Congressduring the Non-Cooperation Movement (1919-1922).
His fans accorded him and his brother the title ofMaulana. In March 1922,
he was in Rajkot jail.Along with his brother, Shaukat Ali grew
disilliusioned with the Congress and Gandhis leadership. Heopposed the
1928 Nehru Report, demanding separate electorates for Muslims, and
attended the first
4. and second Round Table Conferences
in London. His brother died in 1931, and Ali continued on andorganized the
World Muslim Conference in Jerusalem.In 1936, Ali joined the All India
Muslim League and became a close political ally of and campaigner forMuhammad
Ali Jinnah, the future founder of Pakistan. He served as member of the
Central Assemblyfrom 1934 to 1938. He travelled over the Middle East,
building support for Indias Muslims and thestruggle for
independence.Shaukat Ali died in 1938. Mohammad Ali JouharMohammad Ali
Jouhar was an Indian Muslim leader, activist, scholar, journalist and
poet, and wasamong the leading figures of the Khilafat Movement.He was the
sixth Muslim to become the President of Indian National Congress and it
lasted only for fewmonths. He was one of the founders of the All India
Muslim League and he was also the formerpresident of the All India Muslim
League.Mohammed Ali had attended the founding meeting of the All India
Muslim League in Dhaka in 1906, andserved as its president in 1918. He
remained active in the League till 1928.Ali represented the Muslim
delegation that travelled to England in 1919 in order to convince the
Britishgovernment to influence the Turkish nationalist Mustafa Kemal not
to depose the Sultan of Turkey, whowas the Caliph of Islam. British
rejection of their demands resulted in the formation of the
Khilafatcommittee which directed Muslims all over India to protest and
boycott the government.Now accorded the respectful title of Maulana, Ali
formed in 1921, a broad coalition with Muslimnationalists like Shaukat
Ali, Maulana Azad, Hakim Ajmal Khan, Mukhtar Ahmed Ansari and
Indiannationalist leader Mahatma Gandhi, who enlisted the support of the
Indian National Congress and manythousands of Hindus, who joined the Muslims
in a demonstration of unity.Ali also wholeheartedly supported Gandhis call
for a national civil resistance movement, and inspiredmany hundreds of
protests and strikes all over India. He was arrested by British
authorities andimprisoned for two years for what was termed as a seditious
speech at the meeting of the KhilafatConference. He was elected as
President of Indian National Congress in 1923. Allama Iqbal Allama Iqbal,
great poet-philosopher and active political leader, was born at Sialkot,
Punjab, in 1877.Iqbal received his early education in the traditional
maktab. Later he joined the Sialkot Mission School,from where he passed
his matriculation examination. In 1897, he obtained his Bachelor of Arts
Degreefrom Government College, Lahore.
5. Two years later, he secured his
Masters Degree and was appointed in the Oriental College, Lahore, as
alecturer of history, philosophy and English. He later proceeded to Europe
for higher studies. Havingobtained a degree at Cambridge, he secured his
doctorate at Munich and finally qualified as a barrister.He returned to
India in 1908. Besides teaching and practicing law, Iqbal continued to
write poetry. Heresigned from government service in 1911 and took up the
task of propagating individual thinkingamong the Muslims through his
poetry.While dividing his time between law and poetry, Iqbal had remained
active in the Muslim League. He didnot support Indian involvement in World
War I, as well as the Khilafat movement and remained in closetouch with
Muslim political leaders such as Maulana Mohammad Ali and Muhammad Ali
Jinnah.He was a critic of the mainstream Indian National Congress, which
he regarded as dominated by Hindusand was disappointed with the League
when during the 1920s, it was absorbed in factional dividesbetween the
pro-British group led by Sir Muhammad Shafi and the centrist group led by
Jinnah.In November 1926, with the encouragement of friends and supporters,
Iqbal contested for a seat in thePunjab Legislative Assembly from the
Muslim district of Lahore, and defeated his opponent by a marginof 3,177
votes.Iqbal says that the muslims and the hindus are living together but
their customs and traditions aredifferent from each other they cant live
together.These are the two different religions.They have to gettheir own
country in which they can lead their lifes according to their
religions.Some points for seprate Nation 1. Nogation of nation 2. Islam do
not believe on the nationalism base. 3. There is no sepratoin between
religion and politics in islam. 4. Islamic state is a welfare state. 5.
Criticism on national democracy. 6. Islam can solve economic problems. 7.
Islam is the complete code of life 8. Creatoin of Pakistan is the step
towards pan_islamnism.1930 Allama Iqbal AddressThe Allahabad Address,
notable for Conception of Pakistan, was the Presidential Address by Allama
Iqbalto the 25th Session of the All-India Muslim League on 29 December
1930, at Allahabad, India. Here hepresented the idea of a separate
homeland for Indian Muslims which was ultimately realised in the formof
Pakistan.I would like to see the Punjab, North-West Frontier Province,
Sind and Baluchistan amalgamated into asingle State.
6. The principle of European
democracy cannot be applied to India without recognising the fact of
communal groups. The Muslim demand for the creation of a Muslim India
within India is, therefore, perfectly justified. Quaid-e-AzamBorn on 25th
Dec 1876.Died on September 11, 1948.Also known as Baba-e-Quam.Jinnah As a
LeaderJinnah served as leader of the All-India Muslim League from 1913
until Pakistans independence onAugust 14, 1947, and as Pakistans first
Governor-General from August 15, 1947 until his death onSeptember 11,
1948.Jinnah rose to prominence in the Indian National Congress initially
expounding ideas of Hindu-Muslimunity and helping shape the 1916 Lucknow
Pact between the Muslim League and the Indian NationalCongress; he also
became a key leader in the All India Home Rule League. He proposed a
fourteen-point constitutional reform plan to safeguard the political
rights of Muslims in aself-governing India.Jinnah Act as a LeaderJinnah
broke with the Congress in 1920 when the Congress leader, Mohandas Gandhi,
launched a law-violating Non-Cooperation Movement against the British,
which Jinnah disapproved of.Unlike most Congress leaders, Gandhi did not
wear western-style clothes, did his best to use an Indianlanguage instead
of English, and was deeply rooted to Indian culture. Gandhis local style
of leadershipgained great popularity with the Indian people. Jinnah
criticised Gandhis support of the Khilafat Movement, which he saw as an
endorsement ofreligious zealotry. By 1920, Jinnah resigned from the
Congress, with a prophetic warning that Gandhismethod of mass struggle
would lead to divisions between Hindus and Muslims and within the
twocommunities. Becoming president of the Muslim League, Jinnah was drawn
into a conflict between apro-Congress faction and a pro-British
faction.Demand for Pakistan “We are a nation”, they claimed in
the ever eloquent words of the Quaid-i-Azam-“We are a nation with our
own distinctive culture and civilization, language and literature, art
andarchitecture, names and nomenclature, sense of values and proportion,
legal laws and moral code,customs and calendar, history and tradition,
aptitudes and ambitions; in short, we have our owndistinctive outlook on
life and of life. By all canons of international law, we are a
nation”.
7. The formulation of the Muslim
demand for Pakistan in 1940 had a tremendous impact on the natureand
course of Indian politics. On the one hand, it shattered for ever the
Hindu dreams of a pseudo-Indian, in fact, Hindu empire on British exit
from India: on the other, it heralded an era of Islamicrenaissance and
creativity in which the Indian Muslims were to be active participants. The
Hindureaction was quick, bitter, malicious.Equally hostile were the
British to the Muslim demand, their hostility having stemmed from their
beliefthat the unity of India was their main achievement and their
foremost contribution. The irony was thatboth the Hindus and the British
had not anticipated the astonishingly tremendous response that thePakistan
demand had elicited from the Muslim masses.Above all, they failed to
realize how a hundred million people had suddenly become supremelyconscious
of their distinct nationhood and their high destiny. In channelling the
course of Muslim politicstowards Pakistan, no less than in directing it
towards its consummation in the establishment of Pakistanin 1947, non
played a more decisive role than did Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali
Jinnah.Quaid & Two nation theory 1. Concept of seprate nation 2.
Pakistan is the demand for islam 3. Soverignity of God 4. Islamic concept
of democracy 5. National integration 6. Safeguard of minorties 7. Urdu
language 8. Defence 9. Bright future Liaquat Ali KhanNawabzada Liaquat Ali
Khan, the second son of Nawab Rustam Ali Khan, was born on October 1,
1896,in a Madal Pathan (Nausherwan) family. He graduated in 1918 from M.
A. O. College, Aligarh. After hisgraduation, he was offered a job in the
Indian Civil Services, but he rejected the offer that he wanted toserve
his nation. In 1921, he obtained a degree in Law from Oxford and was
called to Bar at InnerTemple in 1922.On his return from England in 1923,
Liaquat Ali Khan decided to enter politics with the objective ofliberating
his homeland from the foreign yoke. Right from the very beginning, he was
determined toeradicate the injustices and ill treatment meted out to the
Indian Muslims by the British. In his early life, Liaquat Ali, like most
of the Muslim leaders of his time, believed in Indian Nationalism.But his
views gradually changed. The Congress leaders invited him to join their
party, but he refused andjoined the Muslim League in 1923. Under the
leadership of Quaid-e-Azam, the Muslim League held itsannual session in
May 1924 in Lahore. The aim of this session was to revive the League.
Liaquat Ali Khanattended this conference along many other young Muslims.
8. Liaquat Ali started his
parliamentary career from the U. P. Legislative Assembly in 1926 as
anindependent candidate. Later he formed his own party, The Democratic
Party, within the LegislativeAssembly and was elected as its leader. He
remained the member of the U. P. Legislative Council till1940 when he was
elected to the Central Legislative Assembly.He took active part in
legislative affairs. He was one of the members of the Muslim League
delegationthat attended the National Convention held at Calcutta to
discuss the Nehru Report in December 1928.Liaquat Ali’s second marriage
took place in 1933. His wife Begum Ra’ana was a distinguished economistand
an educationist who stood by her husband during the ups and downs of his
political career. Sheproved to be a valuable asset to his political career
as well as his private life. Quaid-i-Azam in those dayswas in England in
self-exile. The newly wed couple had a number of meetings with the Quaid
andconvinced him to come back to India to take up the leadership of the
Muslims of the region.When Quaid-i-Azam returned to India, he started
reorganizing the Muslim League. Liaquat was electedas the Honorary Sectary
of the party on April 26, 1936. He held the office till the establishment
ofPakistan in 1947. In 1940, he was made the deputy leader of the Muslim
League Parliamentary party.Quaid-i-Azam was not able to take active part
in the proceedings of the Assembly on account of hisheavy political work
thus the whole burden of protecting Muslim interests in the Assembly fell
onLiaquat Ali’s shoulders. Liaquat Ali was also the member of Muslim
Masses Civil Defense Committee,which was formed to keep the Muslims safe
from Congress activities and to strengthen the League’smission.Liaquat Ali
Khan won the Central Legislature election in 1945-46 from the Meerut
Constituency in U. P.He was also elected Chairman of the League’s Central
Parliamentary Board. After independence,Quaid-i-Azam and Muslim League
appointed Liaquat to be the head of the Pakistan Government. Beingthe
first Prime Minister of the country, He had to deal with a number of difficulties
facing Pakistan in itsearly days. Liaquat Ali Khan helped Quaid-i-Azam in
solving the riot and refugee problem and setting upan effective
administrative system for the country. After the death of Quaid-i-Azam,
Liaquat tried to fill the vacuum created by the departure of the Fatherof
the Nation. Under his premiership, Pakistan took its first steps in the
field of constitution making, aswell as foreign policy. He presented the
Objectives Resolution in the Legislative Assembly. The housepassed this on
March 12, 1949. Under his leadership a team also drafted the first report
of the BasicPrinciple Committee. His efforts in signing the Liaquat-Nehru
pact pertaining to the minority issue in1950 reduced tensions between
India and Pakistan. In May 1951, he visited the United States and setthe
course of Pakistan’s foreign policy towards closer ties with the
West.RefrencePakistan study (Qazi muhammad manzoor al haq , Imtiyaz Ahmed
Khan)Pakistan Studies (Muhammad Hussain Chaudary)

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