1 tends to be very difficult to quantitatively understand

1      TO
DETERMINE THE HEAD LOSSES DUE TO PIPES FITTING AND BENDING

1.1    
Introduction

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Turbulent pipe flow tends to be very difficult to
quantitatively understand from a purely theoretical standpoint, so experimental
analysis is necessary to place some solid numerical backing behind this theory.
This lab was intended to explore the effects of various flow rates (and
consequently velocity and Reynolds number) on pressure drops through a fixed
diameter pipe system with replaceable joints. This system is illustrated in
Figure.

1.2   
Pipe system

Within a pipe system, there are two types of losses. The
first is a Major Loss, and consists of the head losses due to viscous effects
in straight segments of pipe in the system. This will be hereafter referred to
as hL major. The second type is a Minor Loss, and is comprised of losses
generated within components of the pipe system other than the straight pipes
themselves. This will be hereafter referred to as hL minor

1.3   
Procedure

Read the barometric pressure prior to conducting
experiment

 Determine the
temperature of the ambient air

 Record each of the
dimensions listed in Figure 

 Using calipers,
measure the ID of the pipe system, and calculate the area from this value.

 Calculate the
heights, h, on a manometer necessary to achieve a Re value of 15000, 25000, and
35000 through the pipe system.

1.4   
SETUP

1.              
Activate the manometer 1 hour prior to testing

2.              
position the yellow dump valve so that the handle is
parallel to the pipe it is attached to (this is fully open)

3.              
Press the green start button to begin running the
supply fan and air conditioner

4.              
Calibrate the thermostat at the flow bench to match
the temperature recorded previously

5.              
Set the “multipoint” selector switch set to position
“1”, and verify that the temperature displayed on the thermostat still agrees
with the ambient reading.

 

1.5   
Calibration of Instruments and Pipe Flow rate

  To zero the
manometer

1.      Set
the three position filter switch to “OFF”

2.      Set
the scale knob to position “X1”

3.      Use
the zeroing knob to adjust manometer until it reads 0.

4.      Move
three position filter switch from “OFF” to “HI”

1.6   
Pipe A: 90 Degree Elbow Fitting

Adjust flow until the manometer reads the height that
corresponds to Re = 15000

Set the knob labeled “HP”, the high pressure source, to “PIPE
A”

Set the knob labeled “LP” , the low pressure source, to
“R1” 7

Verify that the position of the handle on the ball valve
for pipe A is parallel to the pipe (fully open), and that the handle on pipe B
is perpendicular to the pipe (fully closed).

 REFFERENCE: https://www.google.com.pk/searchq=head+loss+due+to+pipe+fittings+experiment&oq=head+losses+due+to+fitting+and+bending&gs_l=psy-ab.1.0.0i71k1l4.0.0.0.470.0.0….0.TxMii0L3BJE

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