Background of sport medicine and rehabilitation. Kinesio tape attracted

 Background of studyMolouki, Hosseini, Rustaee, and Tabatabaee (2016) stated that in many activities and sports, hand grip is important. Also, most jobs depends on grip strength. Most common sport such as tennis, basketball and badminton relying on athlete’s forearms strength in order to compete at higher levels. In addition, researches in the field of rehabilitation, sports and ergonomics often use hand grip evaluation. According to Molouki et al. (2016) also stated that grip strength is a common term used to describe the amount of power a person can generate with his or her hands. Hand grip strength may be an indicator of muscular strength of an athlete. Hand grip strength is a measurement of the maximum voluntary force of the hand produced by combining contraction of the extrinsic and intrinsic muscles that flex the joints of the hand and measured with a dynamometer (Larson & Ye, 2017). Performance in competitive games generally occurs simultaneously with maintaining their sport specific training which sometimes stresses their body.Kinesio taping may be the one type of support that athletes and coaches apply in an effort to enhance sport performance(Larson & Ye, 2017).According to (Zhang et al., 2016) kinesio taping has been widely applied in treatment of various musculoskeletal conditions, especially in the fields of sport medicine and rehabilitation. Kinesio tape attracted much attention from athletes, physical therapist and researchers. Based on this study, the controversial sports intervention kinesio tape claim that, with specialized application techniques, the tape can elicit short and long-term effects on muscle strength, tissue edema, pain and lymphatic drainage (Macphail et al., 2017). However, there were several studies that explains the influence of kinesio taping application on muscle strength and the results are contradictory and controversial. The mechanism behind the tape are still poorly understood, especially in regards to the inhibitory application of kinesio tape, which few previous studies have examined.   1.2 Research ProblemThe function of the forearm muscle is to facilitate extension of the wrist and fingers. Forearm muscle can be overused throughout the day. This can cause the result in grip fatigue and in grip strength to decrease which leads to muscles not functioning well during performance and not being able to maintain force output (Chang, Chou, Lin, Lin, & Wang, 2010). Athletes get injured halfway of the game and have to compete more. Overuse injuries cause the athletes who participate in sports that require them to do specific movement over and over again ( i.e., badminton, tennis, hockey). According to Donec, Varžaityt?, and Kriš?i?nas (2012) overuse injuries are stress-induced and include tendon inflammation and dislocation, nerve injury and over use stress factures. Overuse injuries is likely to  motive long term disability than from stressful injuries. However, if left untreated, an athlete’s overall performance can be substantially diminished. Surgical treatment may be required if an injury persists (Toprak Celenay & Ozer Kaya, 2017).Therefore, promising viable option for the prevention of sporting injuries which are safe, non-invasive and minimal risks is vital.The mechanisms for the treatment of sport injuries and enhancement of overall performance with kinesio tape include decreasing inflammation and promoting range of motion by improving circulation of blood and lymph, facilitating joint and muscle function (Zhang et al., 2016). 1.3 Purpose of studyTo determine the immediate effect of forearm kinesio taping on maximal grip strength among UiTM badminton athletes.       1.4 Research QuestionRQ 1 : What is the immediate effect of forearm kinesio taping on maximal grip strength among UiTM badminton athletes?RQ 2 : Is there any difference in maximal grip strength among UiTM badminton athletes between absence and presence of kinesio taping application?1.5 Research ObjectiveRO 1 : To find out if the kinesio taping give an effect on maximal grip strength among Uitm badminton athletes.RO 2 : To find out if there any difference in maximal grip strength among Uitm baminton athletes between absence and presence of kinesio taping application.1.6 Research Null HypothesisH0 : There is no significant difference in maximal grip strength among UiTM badminton athletes between absence and presence of kinesio taping application. 1.7 Significance of studyWith this new invention of muscle support kinesio tape is used by anyone who experiences muscle tension or soreness. Athletes can increase their maximal grip strength during performance with kinesio taping application. This study also expected to increase the knowledge for coaches and family so that they can recommend the athletes to use kinesio taping in order to perform better in competitions. Besides, this study can encourage more sport medicine, sport trainers and rehabilitation to widely use kinesio taping in order to increase performance during events. 1.8 Operational definition of termKinesio Tape – Elastic, ultra-light and strong, tape used to provide pain relief, stability and support without restricting range of motion and quicker recovery in injured or sore muscles or joints (Bastholt, 2014). Kinesio tape by Dr Kenzo Kase , single roll 2′ x16.4′.Grip Strength – Grip strength is the force applied by the hand to pull on or suspend from objects and is a specific part of hand strength. The subject in this study will completed a hand grip test using a JAMAR Hydraulic hand dynamometer which measures grip strength in kilograms.Muscle Strength – maximum amount of force that a muscle can exert against some form of resistance in a single effort.  Limitation  There will be some complication that will arise during doing this study. First of all, this study only examined an immediate effect after taping. The carry-over effect of the tape was not investigated.A source of error could have been the difficulty research subject had using the JAMAR Hydraulic Hand Dynamometer. Even with practice trials at each grip strength measurement, the variance in grip strength measurements indicated that it will be difficult for most subjects to perform consistently. DelimitationThis study is limited to the subjects that has no previous injury in their upper body at all. This is because the researcher want to take safety precautions during the test given.LITERATURE REVIEW2.1 IntroductionKinesio taping (KT) is an elastic tape that is well known during the last 10 years, knowing to its use by high profile athletes including volleyball, badminton and tennis players. This tape does not limit movement but supports it and increases the healing process (Mezzedimi, Livi, & Spinosi, 2017). The purpose of this study is to determined the immediate effect of forearm kinesio taping on maximal grip strength among competitive athletes. According to Donec et al. (2012) kinesio taping method is used to achieve many therapeutic effects such as circulation improvement, subcutaneous lymphatic drainage, muscle facilitation or inhibition, fascia correction, mechanical correction. 2.2 Related literaturePrevious study had so many comparison about kinesio taping that related to my topic which is the immediate effect of forearm kinesio taping on maximal grip strength among Uitm badminton athletes. However, all of them had done different purposes of  study, different kind of subject, different procedure used, how the data collected and how the data analysed. The first article studied about the immediate effect of kinesio taping on shoulder muscle strength and range of motion in healthy adults by Alam, Malhotra, Munjal, and Chachra (2015). At three taping conditions the author use two outcome measures which is peak torque of shoulder external rotation with a Biodex isokinetic dynamometer and shoulder rotation ROM with a standard goniometer . Alam et al. (2015) analyzed by using One-way repeated measures analysis of variance and the result is there was a liability for the peak torque to increase after kinesio taping application compared with placebo taping and no taping.Donec et al. (2012) studied about the effect of kinesio taping on maximal grip force and key pinch force. 54 healthy subjects were involved. The grip force, dynamometer was used and a manometer for key pinch force measurements. For comparisons of the quantitative variables of two independent groups, parametric student’s t-test and non-parametric Mann-Whitney test were used. The result of this study shows that there is no changes in maximal key pinch force after 30 minute in the kinesio taping group. However, after 1 hour the application of maximal key pinch force in the kinesio taping group rise up. Donec et al. (2012) concluded that maximal grip force in the kinesio taping group increased both after 30 minutes and 1 hour following application. There was a study that investigate the effect of kinesio tape on muscle activity measured maximal grip strength in kinesio tape users and non users by Macphail et al. (2017). 60 participants were involved which is 27 kinesio tape users and 33 non-users. The author used hand dynamometer to measured muscle activity and maximal handgrip. No significant interaction effect was found between taping conditions and kinesio taping experience for muscle activity (Macphail et al., 2017)Meanwhile, Zhang et al. (2016) examined about acute effects of kinesio taping on muscle strength and fatigue in the forearm of tennis players. The methodolodgy used by the author is that volunteers needed to complete 5 second isometric maximal voluntary contractions along with 50 consecutive maximal concentric wrist extension and flexion repetition at two angular speeds in three taping conditions which is kinesio taping (KT), placebo taping (PT) and no taping (NT) and the result showed that KT did not improve in strength output and the findings were kinesio taping application showed unusual decrease in work fatigue compared to the no taping (Zhang et al., 2016). The author concluded that kinesio taping may enhance blood flow, increase oxygen supplied to the muscle and improving the muscle’s resistance to fatigue. Ozmen, Yagmur Gunes, Dogan, Ucar, and Willems (2017) investigating a title called the effect of kinesio taping against stretching techniques on muscle soreness, flexibility during recovery from nordic hamstring exercise. The subjects were separated into four groups which is PNF stretching, static stretching, KT and control. Muscle soreness was measured by pressure algometry (Baseline, USA), hamstring flexibility evaluated using a passive straight leg raises with a digital inclinometer (Baseline, USA), standard two-inch Kinesio Tex tape was used with facilitation technique by a physiotherapist in a Y shape to the hamstring, The contract- relax-agonist-contract (CRA) method of PNF stretching was used with the static stretching which the subject will be in supine position with legs straight and investigator held the nonstretched leg in position(Ozmen et al., 2017). Another investigator hold the subject’s dominant leg and passively moved the tibia to the terminal position of knee extension. Kolmogorov Smirnov test and One-way ANOVA were used. The result showed that no effect of KT application and pre-exercise stretching on flexibility at 24 and 48 hour after exercise, but it may reduce muscle soreness. Fu et al. (2008) studied about the effect of kinesio taping on muscle strength in athletes. This study investigate the immediate and delayed effects of kinesio taping muscle strength in quadriceps and hamstring with taping applied to the anterior thigh of healthy athletes. According to Fu et al. (2008) muscle strength was measured by the isokinetic dynamometer under three conditions which is without taping, immediately after taping and 12 hour after taping with the tape remaining. ANOVA was used to analyze the result. The results stated that there was no difference detected in muscle power among the three conditions (Fu et al., 2008). There were two authors which is Abbasi, Rojhani-Shirazi, Shokri, and García-Muro San José (2017) and Toprak Celenay and Ozer Kaya (2017) did the same aim of research study which is to investigate whether applying kinesio tape have any effects on pain and postural control of athletes with chronic low back pain. Postural stability was measured with Biodex Balance System (USA) both at static and dynamic mode in bilateral standing position. Pain intensity assess with the pain section of Owestry Disability Index. The conclusion of this study is that kinesio taping may immediately improve postural stability and decrease pain of athletes with chronic low back pain.According to Kocyigit et al. (2015) and Wageck, Nunes, Bohlen, Santos, and De Noronha (2016) both did a study aiming to investigate whether kinesio taping can reduce pain and swelling and increase muscle strength on people with knee osteoarthritis. The experimental group received kinesio taping while the control group receive sham taping. Isokinetic dynamometry were used to measured muscle strength of knee extensors and flexors with angular 60 deg and pressure pain threshold via digital pressure algometry (kgf/cm2). It showed that there were decreasing in kinesio taping and sham taping in the activity pain and noctural pain. Both author also concluded that both groups had similar increase in functional performance after taping.Similarly, Wong, Cheung, and Li (2012) also did a study on knee performance but his aim is to examined the difference in the isokinetic knee performance in healthy subjects with or without kinesio taping. There were 30 healthy subjects involved. Isokinetic dynamomete were used to measure the maximal concentric knee extension and flexion at three angular velocities (60,120 and 180?s) and ANOVA were used to compared the normalized peak torque, total work done and time to peak extension torque of knee extension and flexion (Wong et al., 2012). The result was there were no main effect in normalized peak torque and total work done between taping conditions and angular velocities. However, kinesio taping application was found to shorten the time to generate peak extension torque.  2.3 Summary sectionThere is a major need to perform more research on effects of kinesio tape to reveale the use of it by athletes and coaches. Kinesio taping may not able to increase muscular strength in healthy athletes immediately but it does have significant positive effect on reducing muscle fatigue after few hours  METHODOLOGY3.1 IntroductionThe purpose of this study is to determine the immediate effect of forearm kinesio taping on maximal grip strength among Uitm badminton athletes. This section describe about research design, sample, sampling technique, data collection procedures and data analysis.3.2 Research design  A experimental study will be used. This proposed study will use the randomized pretest posttest control group design to test the hypothesis. This design is selected because the study is intended to examine the effect between the independent variables and the dependent variable. In addition, this design is used when the subjects are randomly assigned into equivalent groups ( treatment and control groups). The following is the research paradigm that will be utilized in this study : Treatment GroupRA01X103Control GroupRA02X204   Figure 1 : Research Paradigm The independent variables will be the absence and presence of kinesio taping. The dependent variables will be the maximal grip strength reading. 3.3 Population/Sample/Subject/sampling techniquesThe target population of this study is among 30 University Teknologi MARA (UiTM) badminton athletes. The sampling technique that will be used in this study is the purposive non-random sampling because the inclusion criteria is Ø Age between 20-25 years old,Ø Healthy subjects Ø Has no previous injuries on both upper limbs. For the sampling technique, fishbowl technique will be used in this study to randomly assigned 15 of them into treatment group and another 15 into control group. Each subject has the equal chance on being selected. 3.4 Treatment/ InstrumentationThe subjects will be assigned into two groups which is treatment group (Kinesio tape ) and control group (no treatment). The treatment group will receive a “Y” strip on their wrist flexor muscle  The instrumentation in this study is the maximal grip strength that will be assessed the strength of handgrip. It will be measured by using the JAMAR Hydraulic Hand Dynamometer by Sammons Preston, USA (Chang et al., 2010). The JAMAR Hydraulic Hand Dynamometer has an excellent measures of test-retest reliability coefficient for handgrip strength (r = 0.973)In this test, the subject will be in standing position and hold the dynamometer in their dominant hand to be tested. When the subject is ready then they need to squeezes the dynamometer with as much effort for about 3 seconds. No other body movement is allowed. 3.5 Data collectionThe purpose of this study is to determine the immediate effect of forearm kinesio taping on maximal grip strength among Uitm badminton players. With that purpose, the test that will be conducted in this study is to measure the maximal grip strength is the hand grip test. Subjects will equally assigned into two groups which is treatment group (Kinesio tape) and control group (no treatment). All the subjects will performed maximal hand grip test for the pre – test and post- test results. First of all, the subject should be in standing position with their arms at their side and not touching their body. The subject need to hold the dynamometer with their dominant hand to be tested. The subject will then have to squeeze the dynamometer as much as force as possible for only once for each measurement. To avoid the effect of muscle fatigue three trials must be made with a pause of 10-20 seconds between each trial. Record the result of each trial to the nearest kilogram.The subjects will then be separated into treatment group and control group. The subjects in treatment group will receive kinesio tape applied on their forearm. Kinesio tape will be applied on the dominant hand at wrist flexor muscle. Standard 2-in (5cm) blue Kinesio Tex Tape (Kinesio Holding Company, Albuquerqe, NM). Before applying the tape, the tape will cut into a strip then cut the middle of the strip to produce a “Y-strip”(Chang et al., 2010). The Y-strip will be applied on the common wrist flexor muscle. As for the control group, the subject will not receive any intervention. After all the subjects have had their intervention then they need to perform maximal handgrip test again for the post – test result. The measurement will be recorded for the analysis.3.6 Data analysisThe data will be collected during pre-test and post-test. The data will be analyzed by using SPSS software. The statistical technique used will be the independent t-test to compare the maximal grip strength among Uitm Badminton athletes between absence and presence of kinesio taping.. The data type that will be use in this study is the ratio scale with the unit of kilograms. 


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