MATERIALS AND METHODS
studies entitled “Effect of Integrated nutrient managementand Bio-regulater on on growth, yield and
quality of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var L. italica Plenck)” were carried out at the Horticulture Farm,
S.K.N. College of Agriculture, Jobner, Jaipur, Rajasthan during Rabi
season 2016-17 and 2017-18. The details of
experimental site, material used and methodologies employed have been described
3. Agro-climatic conditions of experimental site
3.1 Location of experimental site
experiment was laid out at Horticulture farm, S.K.N. College of Agriculture,
Jobner, Jaipur (Rajasthan) during Rabi
season 2016-17and 2017-18. Geographically, Jobner is situated 45 km West of
Jaipur on 260 5 North latitude, 750 20 East
longitude and at an altitude of 427 metres above mean sea level. This region
falls under agro-climatic zone-IIIA (Semi-Arid Eastern Plain zone) of the
3.2 Climate and weather
The climate of Jobner region is semi-arid characterized by extremes of temperature both in summer
low rainfall and moderate
The annual average rainfall is 400 to 500 mm, most of which is fall during July to early September; sporadic showers also received in
winters. The maximum temperature ranges from 30 to 46ºC during May and June, while in December and January, it falls below
1ºC and evaporation ranges from 2.5-6.9
mm/day. The meteorological data
during the period of experimentation recorded
at meteorological observatory of the college are presented
Table 3.1 and depicted in Fig. 3.1.
Soil characteristics of experimental
Soil samples taken from experimental field were
analyzed in the Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry,
S.K.N. college of Agriculture,
Jobner to evaluate physico-chemical characteristics of the soil during
experimentation. The soil samples from 0-15 cm depth were collected from
different locations of the experimental field before application of manures and
fertilizers. A representative composite sample was prepared by processing and
mixing them together and analysed for physical and chemical properties. The
results of analysis presented in Table 3.2 showed that the soil of experimental
site was loamy sand in texture, slightly alkaline in reaction, poor in organic
carbon with low available nitrogen, phosphorus & sulphur and medium in
potassium content. The underground water used for irrigation is partially saline
in nature. The pH and EC of water were 8.1 and 1.9 d/Sm, respectively.
of irrigation water
The irrigation water falls under class C4S2,
according to USDA Hand Book No. 60. The pH and ECe was found to be 8.1 and 3.2
ds m-1, respectively. Water of Jobner area is saline in nature. The
detail of irrigation water is given in Table 3.3.
3.2 Experimental design and layout
The experiment was laid out in Split plot design
(SPT) with 3 replications. Randomization of the treatments was done with the help of random number table as advocated
by Fisher, 1950. The plan of layout of experiment is given in Fig. 3.2. Details of treatments with Notations are given in Table 3.4.
of experiment are given below:
Season and year
: Rabi season,
September 2016 to
January 2017 and
2017 to January 2018
: Sprouting Broccoli
: Split Plot Design
: 7 x5
Total number of plots
cm x 45cm
m x 1.80 m
plant per plot
3.4 Details of treatments with
Fertility levels (main
100% RDF (100:80:60 kg NPK/ha)
75% RDF+ 25% FYM (5 t/ha)
50% RDF+ 50% FYM (10 t/ha)
100% FYM (20 t/ha)
75%RDF+ 25% VC (1.75 t/ha)
50% RDF + 50% VC (3.5 t/ha)
100% VC (7 t/ha)
Control (water spray)
Brassinoids (5 ppm)
Brassinoids (10 ppm)
Salicylic acid (100 ppm)
Salicylic acid (150 ppm)
quantity of mulching material as well as biofertilizers are as under used.
Mulching material/ biofertizer
Black polythene sheet
200 gauge thickness
Table 3.5 Details of the treatments alongwith
of variety Pusa KTS -1
is a medium-tall (65-70 cm) variety. Foliage is waxy and dark green with
slightly wavy margins. Heads are solid green with small beads slightly raised
at the centre. The main head size and weight are about 6.0-15. cm and 350-450 g
respectively. It matures in 90-105 days after transplanting under temperate
climate, while 5-10 days earlier in the tropical plains.
3.3 Raising of the experimental crop
3.3.1 Preparation of nursery beds and rising of the seedling
Two raised nursery beds of 3 × 1 × 0.15 m size were
prepared by mixing well rotten farm yard manure in soil at the rate of 15 kg
per square metre. Seeds were treated with 0.02 per cent thiram to cheek the
problem of damping off in the seedling Seeds were sown on 5th
September, 2016 in shallow furrows 5-6 cm apart by dropping the seeds at 1-2 cm
depth. A thin layer of powdered leaf mould was applied to cover the seed.
Regular watering, hoeing, weeding, plant protection measures, etc. were done time to time. The seedlings were ready for transplanting
within six weeks after sowing of seeds in the nursary beds.
3.3.2 Field preparation
The experimental field was thoroughly ploughed and cross ploughed
with the help of mould board plough and cross-harrowing was done with tractor,
followed by planking and leveling to bring the field to a good tilth. Beds of
1.8 × 1.8 m size and paths and channels were also prepared according to the
layout plan of the experiment.
3.3.3 Application of treatments
sprouting broccoli seedlings were treated with PSB and Azotobacter culture alone as well as in combination of both as per
treatment plan, using standard methods. Suspension of half kilogram
bio-fertilizer in seven litres of water was prepared for treatment of seedlings
to transplant in 155.52 m2. Prior to required quantity of culture
was mixed in cold jaggery water and the seedling of sprouting broccoli were
dipped in solution for 10 minutes before transplanting.
was done prior to transplanting of over seedling. The black polythene sheet of 200 gauge thickness
was spread beds and mustard straw and saw dust were put into bed size 1.8 x 1.8
m and the holes of 1 x 1 inch were made on polythene sheets as per the plant
and row to row distance similiarly.
Mustard straw and saw dust @ 5t/ha & 10t/ha were spread of above 1 cm
thickness as mulch on top soil of the beds and thereafter, transplanting of the
seedling was done at appropriate distance in beds.
3.3.4 Transplanting of
six weeks old seedlings of sprouting broccoli were transplanted in the field on
21th October, 2016 and the average height of the seedlings was about
8-10 cm. The distance between row to row and plant to plant was kept 45 cm x 45
cm. Thus, 16 plants were accommodated in each plot. The transplanting was done
in evening hours followed by light irrigation
crop was irrigated immediately after transplanting and then at an interval
of 2-3 days upto the establishment of seedlings.
After this, the crop was irrigated at regular intervals of 8
3.3.6 Gap filling
filling was done in place of unsuccessful or dead seedlings in the initial
period of the crop to maintain the plant population in each plot uniformly.
3.3.7 Weeding and hoeing
To maintain the proper plant stand, first
weeding and hoeing was done at 20 days after transplanting and later on hoeing
and weeding at 15days interval and two
3.3.8 Plant protection
order to protect the crop from insect, pest and diseases standard methods of
plant protection were followed. To check the attack of aphid, butterfly,
looper, prophylactic measures were taken i.e.
sprouting broccoli plant were sprayed with Malathion 50 EC at 0.05 per cent
after transplanting to protect sprouting broccoli from insect and pest attack.
3.3.8 Harvesting of curds
were harvested before opening of bud when the bud clusters were compact.
Harvesting was done with the help of sharp sickle and observations of tagged
plants were recorded. The process of harvesting was started
from first week of January, 2017 to last week of February, 2017.
3.4 Characters studied and observation
In order to evaluate the “Effect of Mulching and Bio-fertilizers on
Growth, Yield and Quality of Sprouting Broccoli (Brassica oleraceae var.
italica L.)” five plants
were randomly selected and tagged from each plot and observations were recorded. The methodology of individual aspect is
briefly described in the following paragraphs.
Cultivar ‘Green Head’ of broccoli
was chosen for the prsesent study. The cultivar has been recommended for
cultivation in different agro-climatic zones of Uttarakhand. Head of the
cultivar is dark green, medium in size and rich in vitamin A. The average yield
of cultivar ranges from 100-175 q/ha.
study comprised of 10 treatments, which consisted of sole application of
organic sources (vermicompost, neem cake, biovita granules and farmyard
manure), biofertilizers (Azotobacter and
Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria) and their combinations as detailed in Table 3.2.
The details of the
experiment to be conducted in 2015 as under
Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD)
Treatment – 10
Replication – 03
Spacing – 45 cm x 45 cm
– 1.8m x1.35m (2.43m2)
of plant per plot – 12
Table 3.2. Detail of
Treatment code Treatment Detail
T1 – Farmyard manure (FYM) @20t/ha
T2 – Vermicompost @5t/ha
T3 – Neem cake @ 2t/ha
T4 – Biovita granules @50 kg/ha
T5 – Biofertilizers (Azotobacter
+PSB) each @5kg/ ha
T6 – Farmyard manure + Biofertilizers
T7 – Vermicompost + Biofertilizers
T8 – Neem cake + Biofertilizers
T9 – Biovita granules +
10. T10 – Control
Allotment of treatments in experiment field
seed of the cultivar “Green Head” was procured from Department of Vegetable
Science College of Horticulture VCSG
Uttarakhand University Of Horticulture And Forestry, Bharsar, Pauri Garhwal,Uttarakhand,
The seed of the
cultivar was sown in the well prepared nursery bed in lines and covered with a
layer of soil and farmyard manure mixture. Further, these beds were covered
with a thin layer of dried grass as mulch and watered with the help of rose
cane. Regular watering was done in these beds to maintain moisture at field
capacity for the proper growth and development of seedlings. After germination
of the seedlings, dry grass was removed to expose the seedlings to sunlight for
better growth. Nursery was kept free from weeds. Timely plant protection
measures were also followed to prevent nursery from damping off and other
field was thoroughly ploughed by tractor 15 days prior to date of
transplanting. Stones, pebbles and residues of previous crop were removed.
Experimental field was levelled properly and sufficient provision for drainage
was made. There after, the layout of the experiment was done, plots were
prepared and treatments were allocated according to the layout plan.
of different treatment application
Application of organic manures
calculated dose of vermicompost, neem cake, biovita granules and farmyard
manure as per treatment combination were applied in the individual specified
plots before transplanting of the seedlings by broadcasting method and was
thoroughly mixed up well with the soil.
Application of biofertilizers
biofertilizers (Azotobacter and PSB)
were applied through seedlings dip method. A solution of Azotobacter and PSB was prepared by dissolving 200 grams of each
biofertilizers in 5 litres of water and seedlings were dipped in this solution
for 30 minutes before transplanting. After dipping, seedlings were immediately
transplanted in the field.
compact heads and axillary sprouts were harvested at full maturity stage with
the help of sharp knife. The harvesting was carried out in stages as per the
maturity of central head and secondary heads. The first harvesting of heads was
started from third week of November 2015.
The following observations were
Days taken to 50 per cent heading
was recorded by visiting the experimental field daily and numbers of days were
counted right from the date of transplanting of seedlings to the date, when
head were matured in 50 per cent of the plants per plot.
Plant height at maturity (cm)
Plant height was
measured from the ground level to the top of the longest leaf at the time of
harvesting with the help of measuring scale. The height of randomly selected
ten plants was measured and the average value was expressed in centimetres.
Number of leaves per plant
All the fully
grown leaves were counted except for the leaves attached to the heads. The
number of leaves were counted randomly in selected five plants and averaged to
get number of leaves per plant.
3.4.4 Head size
equatorial diameter of each head was measured in centimetres on five randomly
selected plants and accordingly multiplied to obtain the head size and mean
value was worked out, which was expressed in cm2.
Average head weight (g)
heads from different plants were selected from each plot, their weight was
recorded and average value was expressed in grams.
Number of spears /plant
The number of
secondary marketable heads were counted on five randomly selected plants from
each plot and mean value was worked out.
Average spears weight (g)
The weight of
secondary heads was recorded on randomly selected five plants from each plot
and mean value was worked out and was expressed in grams.
Average plant yield (g)
Total weight of
terminal head and spear weight was divided by number of plants to obtain
average plant yield.
Yield quintal per hectare (q/ha)
The yield data
pertaining to central head and secondary heads was recorded on all the plants (q/ha)
and accordingly yield per hectare was calculated and expressed in q/ha.
Shelf life (days)
Shelf life of
fruits was estimated by keeping the fruits at ambient room temperature
conditions till they shrunk and become unfit for consumption.
Total Soluble Solids (°B)
The total soluble solids content in
fruits was determined by Erma Hand Refractometer (0 to 32°Brix). The
refractometer was calibrated with distilled water before use and then a few
drops of fruit juice were placed on the prism and the reading was recorded. A
temperature correction was applied when it was above or below 20°C (AOAC, 1970).
The results were expressed in °Brix.
3.4.12 Ascorbic acid (mg/100g)
Vitamin C is biochemically known as ascorbic
acid, which was estimated by titrimeter method as suggested by Ranganna (1995).
Aliquots were prepared by grinding of well mixed head sample along with
metaphosphoric acid solution and titrated against 2-6, dichlorophenol
indophenol dye to pink end point. The vitamin C content was calculated by using
formula as given below:
Cost of cultivation
cultivation was calculated on the basis of prevailing local charges for
different inputs like labourer, implements, seeds, fertilizers and other
chemicals, used in cultivation of crops under different treatments.
The sale rate of
broccoli heads and / spears, leaves and plant stalk yield of Broccoli were
converted into gross return (Rs./ha) on the basis of prevailing local market
prices of produce ( broccoli heads and /spears/ leaves).
The net return
of each treatment was calculated by deducting the cost of cultivation from the
gross return of individual treatment.
Benefit: Cost ratio
ratio was calculated as follows:
Benefit: cost ratio =
analysis was carried out for each observed character under the study using
MS-Excel, OPSTATE. The mean values of data were subjected to analysis of
variance and ANOVA was set as per Gomez and Gomez (1984) for Randomized
Complete Block Design. For estimation of different statistical parameters,
following procedure and formulae were adopted:
Analysis of variance
Source of variance
Degree of freedom
Sum of squares
Mean sum of squares
Variance ratio (V.R.)
Se/(r-1) (g-1) =
Number of replications
k = Number of treatments
Sr = Sum of squares due to replications
Sk = Sum of squares due to treatments
Se = Sum of squares due to error
Mr = Mean sum of squares due to replications
Mk = Mean sum of squares due to treatments
Mean sum of squares due to error
calculated F-value was compared with tabulated F-value. When F-test was found
significant, critical difference was calculated to find out the superiority of
one entry over the others.
standard error and critical differences were calculated as follows:
(m) ± =
(d) ± =
CD0.05 = S.E.
(d) x t (0.05) (r-1) (k-1) df
(m) ± =
Standard error of mean
(d) ± = Standard error of difference
CD0.05 = Critical
difference at 5 per cent level of significance