Detonation an main problem, which is being continuously studied.

Detonation techniques belong to the most traditional methods for obtaining NDs, at industrial scale. In this respect, we record a series of elimentary reviews of Dolmatov, devoted to such diverse characteristics of detonation-produced nanodiamonds (DND) as the structure, key properties and promising fields of application of detonation-synthesis NDs, modern industrial methods for their manufacture,etc. DND purity is an main problem, which is being continuously studied. In particular, the mechanism to remove excessive acidity by prolonged water washing was described, which was proposed to enhance the essentially quality of NDs and the stability of their aqueous suspensions by treating them with ammonia water (to an alkalescent medium), followed by heating to 200–240? C under pressure (so-called “thermolysis”)6. Alternative methods to remove materials still unconverted to diamond (details see below) produced with yields up to 60% by firing of high explosive mixtures in water confinement, avoiding the use of inert gas and preventing the oxidation and graphitization of recovered diamonds, various selective oxidation treatments (with KNO3/KOH, H2O2/HNO3 mixtures) were carried out, leading to light gray ultradispersed diamond aggregates with a yield up to 60%52. Mechanisms of different steps of DND production have been formed. Thus, the problems related with the final stages in the disintegration/purification of DND into monodisperse single-nanodiamond (DSND) particles were critically reviewed by Osawa et al53.

       Possible pitfalls that might encounter during the search of industrial application of DSND were identified: low diamond-graphite transition temperature, and uncommon strong tendency of the dispersed primary particles to re-aggregate. The production kinetics of detonation NDs was proposed by Titov et al.. As a conclusion of a series of detonation experiments with ultradispersed diamond in oxygen and oxygen-free media, the diamond will not be formed immediately behind the wavefront. The authors accepted that there is a diamond-free zone and zones of diamond production. Formation of NDs with increased colloidal stability with the help of explosion synthesis was suggested by authors27,54

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