Duchenne progresses, the skeletal muscles in the appendages begin

Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy is a
genetic disease where the muscles in a human slowly begin to degenerate
progressively over time. This disease is just one of nine muscular dystrophy
diseases that people can have. Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy is caused by a lack
of dystrophin. Dystrophin is a protein that keeps muscles intact over time.
Symptoms can be seen early in childhood. Most commonly, the disease is
diagnosed between the age of three and five years old. In most cases of people
effected with this disease, it is primarily in boys. There are many rare cases
of girls having this disease.

            The
symptoms of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy are seen around the age of three. The
symptoms include weakness in the muscles of the hips, thighs, and shoulders. As
the disease progresses, the skeletal muscles in the appendages begin to weaken
too. Often times, the calf muscles of the effected child are enlarged. By the
time the affected child reaches their teens, muscles around the heart and
respiratory muscles begin to weaken. It has also been seen that children who
are late to begin walking could have the disease. The children who are often
effected have trouble balancing, tend to be considered clumsy, and are
challenged when

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 A milder version of this disease is called
Becker Muscular Dystrophy. Becker Muscular Dystrophy is different due to the
fact that it only begins once a person reaches their teens before the disease
is detected.

            A
French neurologist names Guillaume Duchenne was the first to describe Duchenne
Muscular Dystrophy in 1860. It was later found in the 1980’s that the specific
gene on the X chromosome caused the disease. The gene becomes mutated and
causes the disease to be present.

            Duchenne
Muscular Dystrophy is passed by carriers. Female carriers who have the
dystrophin gene on one of their chromosomes and a mutated dystrophin gene will
pass along the gene. Most carriers do not show signs of the disease; however, a
very small fraction do show some symptoms. The carriers who show symptoms may
show a variety of symptoms. Some of the symptoms include skeletal muscle
weakness and/or cardiac involvement.

            The
life expectancy of people who have Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy was typically
barely into the teenage years but recently there have been advancements in
medicine that has raised the expected life duration. Many people with Duchenne
Muscular Dystrophy live well into theirs 30’s. Less common, people have lived
into their 50’s.

            Research
going into lessening the symptoms of the disease is still being persued. Many
research projects are working to solve this disease with several different
strategies. Gene therapy is a main strategy that has been used to combat the
disease. Other strategies include exon skipping, gene repair, and stop codon
therapy.

            In
conclusion, Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy is a genetic disease that comes from X
chromosomes that causes muscles to progressively decay over time. Major muscles
begin to decay first and then vital muscles later on. However, due to medical
advancements, scientists have been able to lengthen the life duration of people
by combating the deterioration of the vital muscles. The disease can be
diagnosed early on by many physical and developmental factors. There is a
disease that stems off of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, only differentiating in
the degree of severity. It is also seen that carriers of the disease can
display symptoms but not fully be affected. Many medical advancements have been
made to extend the life of those effected by targeting the genes that cause
this debilitating disease.

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