In the center
of the cardiovascular system, there is an organ called the heart. Underneath
the sternum, the heart is found on the left side of an individual’s chest. You
can easily predict the size of an adult’s heart by the size of their closed
fist. Inside the heart, there is a hollow muscular pump. It effects the
movement of the blood travelling through the arteries. Functioning the
arteries, the heart would carry the blood to the tissues and the working cells.
On the right
side of the heart, the deoxygenated blood would move inside it in order to pump
the blood towards the heart. After entering the right ventricle, the heart
would then pump blood around the human body. The heart is surrounded by a two layered sac
which is called percidium. Normally, the pericardial fluid would pack the
cavity which is in the middle of the layers. The pericardial fluid would have a
reason of stopping the friction from happening. For example the heartbeat.
The heart wall
has three primary layers. These are epicardium, myocardium and endocardium. The
endocardium is the outside part of the heart wall. The myocardium is the middle
layer of the heart wall. This layer is very hard and would strengthen the heart
wall and would make most of this heart wall. The endocardium is inside the
heart wall. The left side of an individual’s heart would separate the right
side. The left side would separate it by using a very hard wall. This hard wall
is called the septum.
The heart of
the human body has four chambers. On the left side, two of these four chambers
are found. On the right side the other two chambers are found. The two chambers
that are found on the left side would work separately from the two chambers
that are found on the right side. The gaseous exchange would happen because the
arterioles, arteries and capillaries would give the two chambers on the right
side a low blood pressure towards the lungs.
blood and blood vessels are all part of the cardiovascular system. The
cardiovascular is one of the systems that would carry. Each cell in the human
body would have oxygen, food and other important products in them because the
cardiovascular system is a system that would carry them. Carbon dioxide and
waste products of an individual’s body are all removed by the cardiovascular
There are two
circulatory system in the human body. The blood would go through the heart two
times and the circulatory system would have two separated circuits. Inside the
red blood cells would be hemoglobin. Oxygen would normally happen by hemoglobin
and carbon dioxide that is inside the lungs is removed from the blood. One of
the main jobs of the systemic circuit is to carry the blood around the human
body. It does this to send the oxygen and bring back the de-oxygenated blood to
the heart. The nutrients and the waste would both be carried by blood.
ventricle and the right atrium have a tricuspid valve located in the middle.
The right ventricle would have blood moving to it from the right atrium by the
tricuspid valve. However, it will not move back. There are three valve leaflets
in the tricuspid valve. These three valve leaflets are types of chords which
are chordac, annulus and papillary. The valve is stopped and kept in one place
by these three chords.
There are four
valves in the heart and the aortic valve is another type of valve. In the
middle of the aorta and the left ventricle, the aortic valve is found. This
valve is located at the bottom of the aorta. When the ventricular muscles
relax, the aorta valve would open and would let the blood to move away from the
left ventricle because it would contract when the ventricular muscles
The aorta would
close so it can stop the blood from going back into the ventricular chamber.
There are four valves in the heart and the pulmonary valve is also another type
of valve. In the middle of the pulmonary artery and the right ventricle, the
pulmonary valve is found. From the pulmonary artery, the pulmonary valve would
stop the blood from moving back to the pulmonary artery. There are three
leaflets that the pulmonary valve would normally have.
At the bottom
of the pulmonary trunk, the pulmonary artery is found. When the right ventricle
contacts, the pulmonary valve would open. The blood would go back to the
pulmonary trunk when the right ventricular muscles relax. To stop the blood
moving back into the ventricular chamber, the ventricular muscles would close
the pulmonary valve.
body’s first artery is called the aorta. Except for the lungs or the human
body, the aorta would start inside the left ventricular and would carry
oxygenated blood to each part of the human body. From the brachiocephalic
artery and the aortic arch the three key arteries would start. The head and the
brain would both be given blood from the aortic arch and the brachiocephalic
subclavian artery and the carotid artery. On the top chamber of the heart, the
atria is found. The right atrium and the left atrium are two parts of the top
chamber of the heart. From the lungs or the human body, the right atrium and
the left atrium would gain more blood and would go back to the heart. From the
inferior vena cava and the superior vena cava, the right atrium would have more
vena cava and the superior vena cava would bring back little bit of oxygenated
blood from many parts in the human body. In the lowest chamber of the heart,
the ventricles are found. There are two parts of the lowest chamber of the
heart. The two lowest chambers of the heart are called the left ventricle and
the right ventricle. The pumping chambers of the human body heart are the right
ventricle and the left ventricle. The right ventricle and the left ventricle
both have a hard wall than the wall of the atria.
circulation for the lungs would have blood pumping to it from the right
ventricle. The systemic circulation for the human body would also have blood
pumping to it from the left ventricle. The right ventricle has a hard wall but
the left ventricle has a harder wall than the right ventricle. The reason why
the left ventricle has a harder wall than the right ventricle is because the
blood is pumped harder to every part of an individual’s body by the left
There are four
valves in the heart and the bicuspid valve is another type of valve. In the
middle of the left ventricle and the left atrium, the bicuspid valve is found.
From the left atrium to the left ventricle, the bicuspid valve would let the
blood to only move one way. From the left atrium, the bicuspid valve would open
to let the oxygen-rich blood to go into the left ventricle. In the right atrium
of the human heart, the superior vena cava is a vein that would get more
deoxygenated blood from the top of the human body and would empty it in the
except for the lungs have gone back to the heart join as the superior vena cava
is part of the two key paths and so it would take the veins to the right atrium
of the heart. The deoxygenated blood from the lowest part of the human body has
been gained by the vein which is the inferior vena cava and has been emptied in
the right atrium of the heart. Through the abdomen, the inferior vena cava is a
very big vein. The blood of the gonadal veins, phrenic veins, renal veins,
hepatic veins and the lumbar veins are all collected by the inferior vena cava.
From the lungs, the pulmonary vein would carry oxygenated blood and would carry
them to the left atrium of the human heart. From the human body heart, the
pulmonary artery would carry deoxygenated blood and would take them back to the
lungs. The artery that only carry deoxygenated blood is called the pulmonary
branch of the pulmonary artery is called the right pulmonary artery. The right
pulmonary artery has a harder and a longer artery than the left pulmonary
artery. The right pulmonary artery would move down the root with a quick speed
to the right lung. Two separated arteries are separated from the right lung.
The right pulmonary artery normally gives blood to the right lung.
One of the lung
right lobes would have little arteries that carries blood to them. The left
branch of the pulmonary artery is called the left pulmonary artery. The left
pulmonary artery would move down the root with a quick speed to the left lung.
Two separated arteries are separated from the left lung. The left pulmonary
artery normally gives blood to the left lung. One of the left lung lobes would
have little arteries that carries blood to them.
has a thinner wall than the arteries. By changing the size, the arterioles
would control the blood that is given out. Arterioles are responsible for
controlling the way blood is moving to the capillaries. The arterioles would
contain a large percentage of the smooth muscles, it is really strong and it
would have a hard wall. By joining the arterioles and the venules, the
capillaries would make a network that would join the veins and arteries.
very narrow and are little blood vessels. The capillaries are important as it
would let important nutrients that are needed by the individual’s body to
spread and would let the oxygen to spread too. The red blood cells will only be
allowed to go into the capillaries as they are really little.by the tiny wall
of the capillaries, nutrients, carbon dioxide, oxygen and waste are all swapped
over. In microcirculation the capillaries has a really important part.
gives out through the circulation of the blood from the human body heart to the
arteries, to the venules, to the little arterioles, to the veins, to the
capillaries and then it would go back to the heart. The deoxygenated blood are
taken back to the heart by the veins. The veins would have a big size and would
have thinner walls than the walls of the arteries. The blood would move slowly
when the blood reaches the veins and the blood pressure decreases by turning
The blood has
been squeezed and has been taken back to the human body heart by contracting
the muscles and pushing the thinner walls in. The veins are below the skin and
are close to the surface. There are little vessels that are separated by the
veins. These little vessels are called venules. The venules rises when it
reaches the capillary network. In the human body there are little veins which
are called venules. By the capillaries and the arterioles, the venules would
get more blood from the arteries.
The vena cava
and the larger veins would have blood that would be carried to them when the
venules are separated into bigger veins. The blood is carried from the superior
vena cava and the inferior vena cava to the right atrium of the heart from the
vena cava and the human body. The tissues and the human body are provided with
oxygen and nutrients through the bloodstream by the cardiovascular system. The
waste products are taken away by this body system. The cell bodies are given
nutrients from the capillaries, which would then collect cellular wastes. The
waste products from the tissues are carried by the circulatory system to the
liver and the kidney and would then bring back the carbon dioxide from the
tissue to the lungs.
heat and nitrogen are the products the waste is made up of and from there it is
carried in the veins to other body system for it to be taken away. When a
person exhales the human body would generally take out carbon dioxide. Ammonia,
utric acid and urea is the shape of nitrogenous waste and is taken away by the
kidneys like urine. In order to keep a constant temperature, the body would
then bring out heat from the skin.
The supply of
heat in the human body is made by this body system to be able to keep thermal
equilibrium during exercise. The human body temperature is controlled by the
cardiovascular system. When the human body is too hot, it takes away a lot of
heat. Whereas, when the body is too cold it puts more blood to the organs and the
whole human body. At 37°C the human enzymes would normally work better at this
The response of
oxygen rises whilst exercising. Oxygen would be carried by the blood to each
part of the human body which needs it. Also, the metabolic waste from two cells
would be carried to the parts that have been taken away. By red blood cells,
oxygen is carried in the blood. Carbon dioxide and oxygen are carried by red
Every body cell
is given oxygen that is collected from red blood cells which is in the lungs of
the human body. The carbon dioxide is carried then taken back to the lungs by the
red blood cells after carrying the oxygen to the body cells. When an individual
exhales, this is the place where it is taken away from the body. The white blood
cells and anti-bodies are carried and is in the blood. Bacteria and viruses
will be stopped if white blood cells and anti-bodies are present.
Germs would be
fought by the white blood cells. Those germs would be attacked by the white
blood cells so it could protect the body from illnesses and diseases. More
white blood cells will be made when an individual has got an infection so it
could fight the infection. When an antigen is seen, proteins are made by the
body. Towards the human body antigens are harmful substances. Bacteria,
chemicals, parasites, fungi and viruses are examples of harmful substances.
individual is cut, it is the platelets job to help during the blotting process.
Death can easily happen if a blood vessel was cut and a lot of blood would be
lost by the cardiovascular if it is not stopped. This is the reason why the
blood loss from the cardiovascular system should be stopped so death does not
happen. Fluid would be provided by the blood for the cells and is a way when
many supplies are carried to and from the cells.
There are four
important parts that the blood would contain. The four important parts are the
white blood cells (leucocytes), plasma, platelets and red blood cells
(erythrocytes). Distribution, protection and regulation are the main jobs of
the blood in the human body. One way of supporting the human body, is that the
blood would control the temperature by distributing and taking in heat. Towards
the liver and the body cells, maintained nutrients are carried from the intestines.
The kidney is the place where the waste products from the tissues are carried
to. Carried into the blood are white blood cells, medicines, hormones and
bladder, the kidney and many kinds of veins are all part of the renal system.
On the top area of the stomach, the kidney is found. The renal system has two
kidneys. These two kidneys have a bean shape and are found on the opposite
sides of the renal system. The ureters would join the kidneys to the bladder.
The renal system would carry on giving the kidney its blood movement because in
the kidneys, the ureters would have a lot of blood vessels.
The short renal
arteries provides the kidneys. In the human body the most important artery
would have kidney’s coming off it. This is called the aorta. In the human body
the aorta is the biggest artery. The most important vein of the human body is
called the renal veins. In the vena cava, the renal veins would take the blood
from the kidneys. In the human body the salt, sugar, acid, the amount of waste
are all controlled by the kidneys. The blood is also filtered by the kidneys.
In the human
body the kidneys would keep the water steady and would control the amount of
red blood cells. The ureter is joined to the back from the kidney to the
bladder and has a long tube from 10-12 inches. From the kidney to the bladder,
the ureter would carry urine for storage. To let the urine go out by the
urethra, the bladder muscles would contract during the urination. When the bladder
is empty it would turn into a pear shape. Inside the pelvis, the bladder is
The urine is
made by the kidney so it is the bladder’s responsibility to hold the urine.
When the human body needs to urinate the bladder would be able to control it and
would let the urination to turn infrequent. The kidney would get oxygenated
blood from the renal artery. The renal artery is a very important artery that
can go in the kidney by the renal hilus which is why it is separated into a lot
of small branches.
artery, interlobular artery, interlobar artery and arculate artery are all
examples of vessels that the small arteries would separate into. Afferent
arterioles are separated from the small arteries. Each nephron is given out in
the kidney by the afferent arterioles.
veins in the kidney combines to the arculate, interlobular and segmental veins
to produce deoxygenated blood to the renal vein. This will move towards the
systemic blood circulation system. In addition, the waste nitrogen will be get
rid of by the renal system. The blood pressure is kept by the renal system.
In the renal system
the urethra for the female is different than the male’s urethra as the male’s
urethra is longer. The genitals would have short tubes that are joined to the
bladder. These short tubes are called urethra. Behind the genital, the urethra
is found. In the renal system during urination from the bladder the urine is
carried and would be taken to the genital.