Internet of Things devices are shape our life today, huge number of devices are connected to the internet and collect information about our activities, the dramatically increase in the number of IoT devices and the sheer size of information that is gathered by billions of Internet of things devices could make these devices and the information they gathered a very valuable target for intruders, many attacks target these devices, in this paper we will cover most well-known attacks and their countermeasures. Index Terms—Internet of things security, IoT attacks, IoT security countermeasures1. IntroductionBillions of intelligent IoT devices connected to internet today, and it is predicted to be 50 billion devices by 20201. these smart, self-decision-making devices control the electricity demands of our cities (smart grid), our home security, transmit our health records to hospitals and receive prescription in order to make human being life easier and productive, Figure 1.Since Internet of Things devices record almost everything around us and collect sheer amount of human and systems activities in addition to the nature of the Internet of Things devices that require them to be online almost always, that make the collected information and devices itself exceptionally important target for attackers and intruders, IoT devices could be attacked to collect information about sensitive environment like Smart Grid or to violate people privacy and committing crimes, exploited IoT devices could be used to lunch attacks against others like DDOS attacks. To demonstrate the ability of intruders to exploit IoT devices to lunch a massive attacks, in September 2016, a massive attack caused many popular web sites like Amazon, BBC, Netflix to get down for a while, the attack has then expanded to attack Dyn a DNS solution and Email delivery service making tens of thousands of users unable to reach the internet, this attack has been lunched using DDOS attack techniques taking advantage of hundreds of thousands of vulnerable IoT devices to compose a network of zombie and control them to start the attack23, what makes these types of attacks dangers is that it can be lunched from any device that is connected to the internet which could be for example smart refrigerators, smart TVs part of this type of attacks, other concern of IoT security is the privacy of users, since IoT devices collect information about people activities like the health information collected by smart wearable devices, unauthorized access to these data would be privacy violation, what is more danger is the intruders’ ability to manipulate IoT devices to harm people like manipulate medical devices to change the victim’s prescription. In this paper we will discuss the different types of attacks that target IoT environment and its countermeasures, section 2 is a general overview of the IoT architecture, section 3 discuss IoT security in general, section 4 lists related work and most-well attacks against IoT environments, section 5 shows the statement of the problem and challenges, section 6 shown the proposed solution, section 7 is conclusion and future work. IoT Architecture The IoT infrastructure composed of multiple heterogeneous devices that are connected to each other and exchange information between them. An abstract view of how IoT works is shown in figure 2. Data is measured by one or more sensors, these measurements are sent the local IoT device that responsible for making the initial processing and storing, data is then sent through the internet to a cloud service for more processing and long term storage.
Widely recognizable architecture for IoT environment is to categories devices based on its location and/or based on its function. the three level IoT architecture 4 is a very well-known architecture that split the IoT environment into three layers, application, network and perception figure 3. i. Perception layer: –
In this layer actions are measured through sensors, these measurements are then sent to IoT controllers which are microcontrollers and embedded boards used to process data and stored it locally, technologies used in this layer like RFID and WSN, RFID is stand for Radio-frequency Identification which is the technology that used to enable the communication between sensors and the monitored IoT objects through RFID tag, the measured data is sent to the controller through wireless network transmission (WSN). devices in this layer have a limited processing and storing capabilities.