Introduction and education. (Roethig, P. and Prohl, R., 2003)

Introduction

                    Sport
science represents a subject-oriented scientific area which includes a system
of scientific researches, theories, and practices that related to sport. Sport
science can be divided into two fields which are theory and subject. It can be
used to describe its subject matter. In theory fields, the establishment of sport
science are sports medicine, sport biomechanics, sport psychology, sport
pedagogy, sport sociology, sport history, and sport philosophy. In sport
science development, it concern about the sport information, sport politics,
sport and law, sport facilities/equipment and sport and economics. Subject
fields have sport-specific aspects for the movement theory, play theory and theory
of training. 4. Besides that the general aspects in the subject fields are
divided into sport performance and performance capacity, music and movement,
recreational sport, sport and health, sport with “special group,” sport
journalism, and aggression in sport. (cf. Haag et al., 1989)

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                    In
this assignment, I would like to concern about the analysis of the sport
pedagogy. In discipline, sport pedagogy include learning, teaching, coaching,
instructing and educating in sport which are physical activity, education and
health with focuses on the movement, play and exercise. Sport pedagogy is
mostly regarding to the academic field of sub-discipline of sport science which
located at the intersection between sport and education. (Roethig,
P. and Prohl, R., 2003)

                    Crum
(1986) identified three research tasks which sport pedagogy researchers need to
address were hermeneutic research task, descriptive-explanatory research task
and constructive task. The hermeneutic research task executes the ideological
clarification of the relationships between fundamental conceptions, sports
education objectives, and criteria for the quality of sport pedagogy.
Furthermore, the descriptive-explanatory research task is founded to explain
and describe about the empirical relationships between actual presage, process,
product and context variables in sport pedagogy. The constructive research task
is applying for design, controlled implementation, and evaluation for the
improvements of sport pedagogy.

            Sport
pedagogy provides the necessary
starting point for anyone who cares about sport, education and young people. It
represents
the invaluable theoretical and practical guidance to
people who want to become an effective coach, teacher or lecturer,
and for the one who wants to inspire children or
juvenile to engage in the sport for life. Sport
pedagogy refers that teachers and coaches need to support children and juvenile
to
learn about the pedagogical
knowledge in effectively. Sport and education
are come together while studying in sport pedagogy.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Importance
of sport pedagogy

                    In
sport pedagogy, physical education and sport knowledge is always context-bound.
There have some factors must be analyse and understand in sport knowledge which
are historical, political, economic and social.
Sport pedagogy helps learner to become more creative against the contextual of
sport coaching style so coaches and instructors can make change for their
training program with applying the knowledge of sport science to prevent sport
injury and increase the fitness of athletes. The effective career-long
professional learning for teachers and coaches has developed. It is an indispensable
step towards providing positive sport experiences for participants with diverse
needs. 

                    Sport pedagogy makes new possibilities for the evolution and transformation of contemporary sport on
pedagogical action. It promotes the knowledge and criticality for the sport’s practitioners. In
this context, the internal logic and incorporation of the external logic of
sport had been taught have influence the teaching of sport and become articulated
in the pedagogical actions. Sport
education claims to obtain new knowledge, skills, values, experience,
innovation models, views, development of abilities, expectations and so on for
learners.

                     The four basic pillars of education
written in the White book of the European commission, reduced to: “study
related to knowledge and understanding, for acquiring general culture and deep
cognition; study related to mastering of a concrete activity, for acquiring
competence, professional qualification and readiness for managing in various
situations; study related to formation of skills for wholesome life together
and understanding with the others; study related to survival and personal
development …” (Delor, 1996).

                           Sport
pedagogy studies to knowing oneself as establishing self-awareness and
self-confidence of a coach to plan the sports and training activities. There
are respectively for a person to knowing oneself. Personality is related to the
study of learning definite knowledge about oneself. The formation of skills and
qualities is important to explain the competent and purposeful analysis for
finding oneself of own professional and human dignities and shortcomings.
Sports
pedagogy provides standard knowledge in its prevailing part which is the
correct activities about the respective situations described. Coaches will then
develop additionally in different knowledge with variety of sports educations. Thereby,
the skills and habits for seeking new knowledge, for finding new solutions,
creating original products of the theory and methodology of the sport
competitive activity are established. Study in sport pedagogy can build up
personal moral value and aesthetic in sport.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Learning theory for effective learning practice

            Learning is a universal
process for detecting information, interpreting it and uses it to take action. There are few learning
theories that are effective for the learning practice which are behaviourism, cognitivism,
constructivism, humanism and others.

            Behaviourism is
a worldview that operates on a principle of “stimulus-response”.
Behaviourists believe that learning is actually appears when new behaviours or
the changes of behaviours are acquired between the stimulus and response. Knowledge
exists independently and outside of people, behaviour is caused
by the
external stimuli (operant conditioning). Behaviourist
explained that all behaviours are without the need to consider
internal mental states or consciousness. Behaviour theorist define that learning
begins when a cue of environment is presented, then the learner reacts to the
stimulus with some kind of responses. New behavioural patterns can be learn and
do it automatically with the repeated practices. To apply the behaviourist
learning theory, learners can make drills for a specific skill or rote the
work. Repetitive practice generate learner to become more proficient and can
make a long term memory. It is beneficial to have verbal reinforcement for a
learner to do work and learn things incentive. For an example, coaches or
teachers saying “good job” or “well done” to 
learners who doing things right and well, it will build up learner’s
confident and motivate them to improve their behaviour. Coaches and teachers
must establish rules for learner to follow. It will lead them to become more
discipline and understand the moral values while learning. In this theory,
learners are prepared to recall basic facts, automatically response and
performing tasks.

            Cognitive information processing is
based on the thought process that behind the behaviour. The revolution of
cognitivism replaced the behaviourism in 1960s as the dominat paradigm. Cognitivist
defined that human mind is valuable and essential for understanding of the
information while learning. Cognitivesm focuses on the inner mental activities
such as thinking, knowing, memory and problem-solving. Cognitivism
uses the metaphor of the mind as computer to make an internal processing through the
information that has been received. Learning includes the reorganisation
experiences accordingly to change the knowledge which is stored in the memory
rather than the changes of behaviours. The application of cognitive theory is
classifying or chunking information to offer the information clearly and
consistence. Teacher and coaches have to organise the lecture in efficient and
meaningful ways such as providing structure or demonstration. Good interaction
between coaches or teachers and learners is important for learners to
communicate. They need opportunity to discuss the tasks and making their own
decisions. Learners have the ability to make new strategies while playing a
game or can build up their self-confident to solve the problems they had faced.

            Constructive theorists believe that
constructivism learning is defined as an individual constructs new ideas,
concepts or strategies based on their prior information, knowledge and experiences.
Learners generate own mental models which can use to make sense of their
experiences to resolve conflicts between ideas and reflect on to theoretical
explanations. This theory is preparing for learner for the learning of problem
solving. To be successful, learners need a significant base of knowledge and
experiences to interpret and create new ideas.  For decades, people used
brainstorming to generate ideas, and figure out creative solutions to solve problems. Brainstorming combines a relaxed,
informal approach to problem solving with lateral thinking. It encourages
people to come up with thoughts and ideas. Collaborative learning or group work can
help learners to gain different information and knowledge from variety thoughts
of people. Doing a research project also can inspire learners to get new ideas
from different kind of sources. Therefore, learners willing to take their
researched knowledge to make a revolution of the things they learned. It allows
the tactical or strategies become more effective for a learner to use or
construct. Simulation can build up the flexibility of learners mental and
thought. Learner can increase their accuracy and efficiency while solving a
problem.

            These
three theories are important to understand. Learners need to decide which
theories and strategies to use while applying in learning. We have to consider
the knowledge of learners, the thoughts processing demands and the desired
outcome which generation the new ideas or single answer.

           

 

 

 

 

 

Perfect pedagogy for teachers and coaches

                    The
literature suggests that, despite some challenges in their implementation,
player or athlete-centred, inquiry-based approaches to teaching games and
coaching team sport can improving game playing ability, increase players or
athletes motivation and provide positive affective experiences of learning. A
range of these approaches, including Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU),
Game Sense, Play Practice and the Tactical-Decision Learning Model vary in
detail.

                    The application of
game-based pedagogy is effective for teachers and coaches to educate players or
athletes. The different approaches used in game-based teaching and coaching can
provide consistently positive learning experiences that enhance learning and
promote both the ability and motivation to learn. This is largely due to them
being learner-centred, inquiry-based approaches that emphasize reflection upon
experience and social interaction. Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU –
Bunker & Thorpe, 1982) is the oldest and most general acknowledged in these
approaches.Game-based pedagogy more focuses on the development of players or
athletes. The process of learning generates positive experiences that are
enjoyable, satisfying and facilitate learning how to learn (Light, 2003). The
learning experiences provided by this pedagogy can contribute toward positive
social, moral and personal development.

                    The pedagogical features are
important for teachers and coaches to become perfect in pedagogy. Teachers and
coaches are designing and managing the learning environment or experience as
organise a game for players or athletes to participate. It makes players or
athletes learn to play well involves adapting to its dynamics with tactical
knowledge, skill execution and decision-making all interconnected as
knowledge-in-action. Learning is located within modified games or game-like
activities based on the assumption that learning occurs through engagement with
the learning environment and not through direct instruction. This leads to the
players or athletes learn to engage the environment so they can achieve through
a growing understanding in and about games and of how to learn.
Some practice games are designed to focus on particular aspects of the full
game they additionally provide a holistic experience that typically includes
developing awareness and decision-making for a player or athlete.

                    Teachers
and coaches can ask
questions to generate dialogue and thinking of players and athletes. Coaches
and teachers are avoid being critical or telling learners they are wrong as a
means of further promoting divergent thinking, creativity and enjoyment of
meeting challenges and of discovery (George, 2006). Learners need the opportunity
to voice their own opinions and learn to create the solution when facing on
difficulty. They must formulate solutions to overcome the problems they had
faced. It makes learners become independent and can solve their problems easily
in a positive way. The goals of a game or an activity are important for
learners to know and understand. Therefore, learners should think about why,
what and how to achieve the goals of a game.

                    The
opportunities for formulating, testing and evaluating solutions of a learner
can improve their ability to become independent. Players or athletes will have
the ideas to formulate the strategies. They test for their strategies and
identify the problems occur while progressing, then they can evaluate solutions
and make a new more powerful and effective strategy to improve their
performance. The productive social interaction involved in this process lead to
players or athletes understanding each other as more than objects on the field
or court. It encourages empathy, compassion, meaningful relationships, a sense
of connection and care for each other as well, both on and off the field.

                    To
get players or athletes to voice up, coaches and teachers must develop a supportive environment where they feel
secure and encourage. Coaches and teachers have to understand that   mistakes are not necessarily negative.
Mistakes seen to be a constructive error that made into a positive learning
experiences. It makes with the provision of opportunities for adequate reflection
and analysis.

                   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Model- based practice

            Model-based practice
(MBP) defined as the alternative approaches to teaching in
physical education. Simultaneously, people preferred it to the tradition
multi-activity curriculum that currently operated in schools. It puts
the learning of a student at the top of the agenda and
which seeks to align teaching, learning and content.
Models-based
practice (MBP) approaches are the future of teaching in physical
education whilst also acknowledging the fact to teach teachers how to use them
properly, and modify them at schools, classrooms and
students.

On a cautionary note
the review suggests that model-based practice (MBP) is not a
straight forward alternative to traditional teacher-led methods,
it
takes time to learn to teach in new ways. The innovation of pedagogy will
have risks but it also brings in the rewards as it seems from
listening to teachers are centred on enhanced student learning and are worth
the extra effort. The strongest changes occurred when teachers worked in
collaboration with Universities and their learning communities. Such
as the development of the PEPRN site helped teachers not only
to
adopt these models but also to modify them so it leads them to become more
effective at an individual classroom level.

Papers were selected by searching EBSCO databases with the
identifiers “Instructional Models”, “Sport Education”, “Teaching Games for
Understanding” and their hybrids,  “Cooperative learning”, “Teaching
Personal and Social Responsibility”, “Personalised System of Instruction” “Peer
Teaching Model” and “Inquiry Teaching.”  These were chosen as they match
the seven innovative models in Metzler’s (2010) compendium of instructional
models.

The categories, which emerged from the analysis, were based
upon the researcher’s perceptions of findings and revealed five key findings or
themes are change for teachers, the difficultly and time,
diversification in the teacher’s role, evidence of effectiveness and
university/teacher collaboration.

While changes in attitude, positive feelings, efficacy,
enthusiasm and vigour were reported by teachers, there was also an
acknowledgement that they lacked experience in using MBP which made them feel
like they were ‘beginning teachers’ again. For some the conceptual shift was
too much and they deliberately returned to their old pedagogies. For others,
the change occurred slowly but gradually over the course of the intervention.
When professional learning was part of the relationship between the teachers and
researchers, then these returns to old practices was not reported. However, it
was acknowledged that to engage with MBP required greater effort on behalf of
the teacher and that to feel comfortable could take upwards of two years.
Change was a difficult undertaking, but when ‘evidence’ of success was used to
support the teachers’ learning then they felt more confident in their
decisions. The biggest factor in engendering change was the sustained support
offered through collaborative partnerships between schools and universities.
These supportive relationships allowed the teachers to continually reconsider
their practice with the help of experienced colleagues.

A models-based practice has been advocated as a means of overcoming the serious limitations of
the traditional approach to physical education. One of the difficulties with
this approach is that physical educators have sought to use it to achieve
diverse and sometimes competing educational benefits, and these wide-ranging
aspirations are rarely if ever achieved. Models-based practice offers a
possible resolution to these problems by limiting the range of learning
outcomes, subject matter and teaching strategies appropriate to each
pedagogical model and thus the arguments that can be used for educational value.
In this article, two examples are provided to support a case for educational
value. This case is built on an examination of one established pedagogical
model, Sport Education, which is informed by a perspective on ethics. Next, I
consider Physical Literacy which, I suggest, is an existentialist philosophical
perspective that could form the basis of a new pedagogical model. It is argued,
in conclusion, that a models-based approach along with a reconstructed notion
of educational value may offer a possible future for physical education that is
well grounded in various philosophical arguments and the means to facilitate a
wide range of diverse individual and social educational ‘goods’.
(David Kirk, 2013)

Model-based practice has begun to help students
or practitioners to change and develop their pedagogies and curriculum.
They learn to understand the impact of changing to a
models-based approach beyond the initial use of the models
to explore the longitudinal impact of the adaptation of a
multi-model curriculum. Furthermore, indication of MBP investigates
the pedagogical and curricular ramifications on teachers in
the long-term adoption of a models-based approach.

 

Conclusion

                    Pedagogies have evolved over past 20 years;
exhibition of this field has grown in complex and depth. Once dominated by the
positive paradigm, the field now utilize the multiple paradigms and
perspectives. Despite this program, problems exist. Much young pedagogy is
employed in the lab-intensive positions as teacher educators in college and
universities that provide little times or support their research. Pedagogical
research has yet to significantly influence the school physical education
programs. And there is continuing tension in the relationship of the pedagogy
to the other sub-disciplines of exercise and sport science.      

Sport Pedagogy offers
an essential starting point for anyone who cares about sport, education and juvenile.
It
also provides inappreciable theoretical and
practical guidance for teacher or coach, and for anyone who wants to
study to inspire children and young people to engage in and enjoy sport
for life. As a learner in sport, reflection critically on the ways
in early learning experiences might affect the ability to diagnose the
different learning needs of young people.

Sport Pedagogical study that people
would learn things in practices as it
refers both ways in which children and young people learn the pedagogical
knowledge and skills that teachers and coaches need to support them to learn
effectively. It helps to enhance the framework for
teachers in carrying out their pedagogic work among their students,
particularly younger individuals, from the point of view of education for
values and sports ethics.

                    Finally,
I will consider that the notion of pedagogical approaches providing an
advantageous concept. The concept helps to analyze the contribution of sport
pedagogy to understand related on the learning of physical activity, the body,
and health. (Richard
Tinning, 2012)

 

 

 

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