Introduction by the domestic water resources are internal WFs

Introduction

Pakistan
is one of the highly vulnerable to climate change among countries. The effects
of climate increases over time in Pakistan as Pakistan facing many
environmental issues which include flood in some of the region in Pakistan
(schilling et al, .2013) and also increases in health issues due to the climate
change which effect the health of labor through which production of agriculture
sector going down due to the lack of labor. According to the ranking of
vulnerability index (CCVI) Pakistan stand at 29th number over the
period of 2009-2010 and the stand at 16th number over the period of
2010 to 2011(Khan and Fee, 2014).

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Agriculture
is the strength of an economy. In Pakistan, it is a dominant and second biggest
sector. In rural areas, 63 percent households directly or indirectly depend
upon agriculture in Pakistan. In GDP it contributes 19.5 percent and 42.3
percent in labor force.  There are five sub-sectors
contains livestock’s, major, minor crops, forestry, and fisheries. In major
crops, cotton, rice, wheat, and sugarcane are included and contribute 6.5
percent in GDP. Cotton is used in textile industry as a raw material as it is
basic non-food crop and Pakistan is the 4th largest producer of
cotton (Raza et al., 2012)

In
Pakistan cotton is second important cash crop after wheat and it consists large
area for cultivation and it is increased in last 30 years by 7.86 million
hectares. Pakistan earns a large part of its export revenue from cotton. The 80
percent of the production of oilseed comes from the seed of cotton. In GDP, the
contribution of cotton and its product is 10 percent and in foreign exchange
earnings is 55 percent in Pakistan (GOP, 2016-2017).

The
water footprints are defined as the volume of water required for the production
of goods & services and it measures the consumption of water in crops per
unit. The volume of water which is used by the domestic water resources are
internal WFs and the volume of water which is used for good and services that
are imported and consumed by the individual by the country are external water
footprints. The consumption of water footprints in Pakistan estimated the
internal water footprints is 1119 (m3/cap/yr) and external water footprints 63
(m3/cap/yr) in agriculture sector and in the industrial good the consumption of
internal water footprints is 12 (m3/cap/yr) and external water footprints is 2
(m3/cap/yr). Globally the volume of water used is 6390 Gm3/yr for the crop
production and rice contributes its largest share in volume of water that is
1359 Gm3/yr and which is nearly 21 percent of the total volume, and wheat
contributes 12 percent and which is the 2nd largest share in total volume of
water and Maize contributes 9 percent and seed cotton contributes 3 percent in
the total volume of the water (Hoekstra and Chapagain, 2007).

Successful
cotton production entirely depends upon the water availability. Irrigated
agriculture is facing acute competition for low cost and high-quality water and
world is looking for water-saving agriculture, which refers to full advantage
of available irrigation facilities (Howell, 2001).

 

Water
is the very important input in deciding the choice of crop. Cotton is mainly
grown in southern Punjab usually because of low water demand and moderately
drier conditions. In many areas spread more than 0.6 million acres canal water
is limited along these lines lack is met through pumping underground water. The
kept saddling of groundwater has caused serious penalties of depletion of water
to further layers which over the long run is predicted to have enormous
implications. Saving maybe a couple irrigation system through better management
practices may give dreadful help to the farmers not just related to lowering
the cost of production but also prolonged conservation of water under soil
(Gill, 2000).

Water
saving agriculture aims to raise water utilization rate and efficiency for
achieving a high economic yield on irrigated farmland with the minimum input of
water at both public and private levels. Water saving is a comprehensive
exercise using every possible measure in farm production, including full use of
natural precipitation as well as efficient management of an irrigation network
through a suitable planting method. 
There are some planting methods of are flat sowing, bed and furrow
sowing, broadcasting and drill sowing. Planting methods are important factors
which affect crop growth and finally the crop yield. Better irrigation water
use efficiency can be attained through implementing the best management
practices of irrigation (Khan & Ullah, 1991).

The
concept of carbon footprints is new that introduce and gives the knowledge of
emission and its tools and methods are helpful in finding the various
environmental issues. The definition of carbon footprints is not proper,
conceptually in carbon footprints, anthropogenic activities are involved that relevant
to radiation or emission sources and climatic effects (wiedmanm, 2009).

 

Cotton
is soft fiber that grows in protecting boll. Its family is Gossypium.
Pakistan’s textile industry heavily depends upon cotton production as it
providing raw material. In Pakistan, there are various reasons for low
production of cotton-high price rates of seeds, pesticides fertilizers etc,
lack of new technologies, improved seeds and awareness. Pests and insects
attacks are high. Cotton is cash crop so it provides the business possibility
for the sector of fertilizer and pesticide sector. In cotton use of pesticides
is very high and this crop also very important for women empowerment because it
provides work opportunity likes picking the cotton bolls. Cotton grows usually in
the two provinces of Pakistan first in Punjab and the second one in Sindh. High
temperature and heavy rain and most of the pest affect on Pakistan
cotton-growing district of Punjab and Sindh province last year in 2016. The
cotton is being planted in Southern Punjab cover the regions Multan,
Bahawalpur, Muzaffargarh, Rahim Yar Khan, Bahawalnagar, Vehari and  noteworthy belonging of Sindh is under cotton
development (Iqbal ).

The
basic purpose of this study is to estimate the effect of the water and carbon footprints
for the production of cotton. The cotton production should be increased because
it is second important cand footprints of carbon and water should be estimated.
The policy should be reinforced by Government for the development of
agriculture sector for the production of cotton.

OBJECTIVES

·        
To estimate the profitability of cotton
production.

·        
To estimate determinant that effect
cotton yield.

·        
To estimate the carbon and water foot
prints of cotton production.

·        
To suggest policy implications based on
the findings of the research.

 

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

In
GDP, the contribution of cotton is major and value addition and cotton is a
very important cash crop. It is estimated that more than 5 million people’s
livelihood depends upon cotton. The contribution of cottonseed is 3.6 million
ton for production of edible oil. The cultivation of cotton is extended to
Punjab to Sindh. The effect of water and carbon footprints on cotton production
increased and yield of cotton effected. The purpose of present study is to estimate
the effect of water and carbon footprints on the production of cotton. Some
important and relevant review of literature given below.

Naidu and Shankar (2007)
used
Cobb-Douglas production function to estimate the productivity of cotton and
economics aspects that affect the production of cotton. They observed that in
India large farmers are more benefited and their investment in the cultivation
of cotton production is high and small farmers had to face many problems and
hardships to grow cotton. Cotton is commercial crop and the profitability of
production of cotton starts from crop and ends with marketing. They suggested
that irrigation system, good management, and technology helps the farmers for
the profitability of cotton crop.

Deguine et al. (2008)
explained that high use of inputs necessary for the production of cotton. They
found many factors that are responsible for the low yield cotton crop but the
most important factor is insects these are not only caused to reduce the
quality of crop but also reduce the production of cotton. The excessive use of
chemical pesticides also effects the crop of cotton, plant pathogens also a
serious threat to crop. The high use of pesticides affects the health of the
labor and production of cotton also effected due to the fewer availability of
farmers in the field.

Sprangers (2011)
explained
the concept of carbon footprints, carbon radiations produced by direct and
indirect sources from a life and these emission measured in kilogram and tons.
He found that Co2 is the one the important tool for controlling greenhouse
gases. Co2 produced due to everyday activities and due to human activities like
business travel that may be direct and indirect emission. Due to environmental
factors that effected by co2 the crop production effects badly. He suggested
that carbon footprints would be established for households, schools, production
services, and business sector.

Mal et al. (2014) explained
the two varieties of cotton Bt cotton and non-Bt cotton and found that Bt
cotton is more profitable than non-Bt cotton but Bt cotton is not appropriate
for dry land and it needs more irrigation and farmers of Bt cotton used more
quantity of fertilizer as compared to non-Bt cotton. They estimated in future,
the area can be reduced of soil fertility of Bt cotton. Bt cotton is beneficial
for the environment because it reduced the use of insecticide. So farmers used
Bt cotton because of they wanted to increase their production and reduced use
of insecticide but adoption causes vary area to area. They found Northern India
adopted Bt cotton due to economic factors that are expensive of insecticides,
revenue of cotton and income of non-farm and some factors like education and
farmer’s network and also found that in Punjab farmers adopted Bt cotton more
than other farmers in India.

Mekonnen and Hoekstra
(2014) found that the shortage of water increased the
resources there is limited freshwater resources to fulfill the global demand
for food. With the lack of water crops also effected thus the volume of water
footprints reduced per unit to produce a crop. They wanted to analyze the water
footprints benchmarks for huge numbers of the crop in the whole world and their
study showed that water saving and reduced water footprints are very important
—- with 54% reduction in water footprints can save water about 39% and
production also increased in this manner. The supply chain also effected by WF
benchmarks which based to reduce the income of farmers. They suggested that
there should be a policy to measure performance and water footprints would be
reduced.

Abedullah et al. (2015)
estimated
that in Pakistan the effect of Bt cotton on environmental efficiency but it is
better than non-Bt cotton. The adoption of Bt cotton is 37% higher than non-Bt
cotton for the environmental improvements. They analyzed the effect of Bt
cotton on environmental efficiency in Pakistan by using survey data and applied
heteroscedastic stochastic production model. They found that there is a
negative impact on environment and health issues can be reduced by Bt cotton
and it contributes to development of agriculture sector.

Diarra et al. (2017) estimated
the central point affecting cotton yields and assessing the feasible impacts of
future environmental change. The consequences of investigation with respect to
the potential effect of the future environmental change on cotton yield showed
that further increments in worldwide temperature would essentially diminish the
yield of cotton. Future changes in precipitation would likewise influence
cotton creation, yet contrasted and the impacts of temperature, the impacts of
precipitation are generally lesser. Thus, techniques for diminishing the
effects of environmental change on cotton creation ought to emphasize the
advancement of warmth safe cultivars instead of dry season safe ones keeping in
mind the end goal to moderate and adjust them to the impacts of environmental
change. Expanding temperature in the two first developing stages is for the
most part troublesome for cotton yield, while it is ideal in the two last
stages. An excess of rain in the second stage is negative for cotton yield
however great in the three different stages.

Reham et al. (2017) explained
the association between agricultural (GDP) and yield of the cotton crop, the
region under the cotton product and fertilizer utilization in Pakistan over the
period 1970– 2015. Time series data gathered from Economic Survey of Pakistan
and Pakistan Bureau of Statistics (different productions). Ordinary Least
Square technique (OLS), (ADF) Augmented Dickey-Fuller test and co-integrated
test used to examine cotton crop data. The aftereffects of co-joining uncovered
that there exists a long haul connection between the yield of the cotton crop,
the land under cotton crop, fertilizer utilization and agricultural total
national output of Pakistan. The consequences of low investigation demonstrated
that yield of cotton harvest and fertilizer utilization has a positive
association with the rural GDP of Pakistan while the area under cotton has a
negative association with the agriculture total national output of Pakistan.

Cotton
will proceed as a critical supporter of the national economy Government will
additionally reinforce its cotton administration Investment in cotton will
concentrate on enhancing profitability and effectiveness Private division will
be urged to lead advancement, get learning and speculation cotton innovation
(esteem chain and varietal improvement) Free market strategy will proceed and
the legislature will haul totally out of the cotton business and concentrate
essentially on direction.

 

METHODOLOGY

Area of study

The
study will be based upon the primary source of data. The data will collect from
field survey by face to face interview with farmers of villages of khanewal
district multan. All categories of farmers will be selected-small, medium and
large producers of cotton.

Sampling and data collection

The
research will contain two major sections the first section includes data
collection with random sampling method and analysis of data explained in the
second section. Questionnaire development is an important medium to collect
data from farmers and that will develop well-structured and contains all
important and relevant questions to cotton production and determinants that
effect yield of cotton. The question will be asked of cotton growing farmers in
their language.

Data analysis

I
will analyze how much water footprints required for cotton production in units
and also estimate the carbon footprints by using appropriate econometric
technique and applied descriptive statistics used to find out the yield gaps of
cotton.

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