p.p1 in India. The second half of the 18th

p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 12.0px 0.0px; line-height: 14.0px; font: 12.0px ‘Helvetica Neue’; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000} p.p2 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 12.0px 0.0px; line-height: 14.0px; font: 12.0px ‘Helvetica Neue’; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000; min-height: 14.0px} p.p3 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 8.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Helvetica; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000} p.p4 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Helvetica; color: #000000; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000; min-height: 14.0px} span.s1 {font-kerning: none}

In the mid 17th century (1750), cotton textile industry was the second largest employer in India, only after agriculture. The textile industry has made a major contribution to the national economy in terms of direct and indirect employment generation and net foreign exchange earnings.  Indian textiles were exported to Britain on a large scale from the seventeenth century (Baines, 1835: 55-83; Robson, 1957: 1). In the mid 18 century, Europe’s appetite for Indian cotton textiles caused great tumult in colonial India. European consumers yearned for the useful plain cloth, spun and woven by the Indian householders and artisans. This stimulated the series of events leading to the colonisation of India and the destruction of the Indian textile industry. British colonial and economic policies began treating India as an unequal partner for the first time. The British merchants secured not only the textile trade but were the impetus for the British territorial ambitions in India.
The second half of the 18th century, India’s share of world industrial production fell faster than in any other part of the non-European world. The main reason behind the decline of the textile industry is the British colonial policies in India. British colonial policy towards cotton weavers in India was driven by the Industrial Revolution. Industrial revolution in the UK catapulted the nation to the top league of Europe for the first time ever. The colonial policy involved coercion of weavers and to destroy the native textile industry. In the 18th century A.D. The British government abolished the protectionist policies of Indian goods such as bans, high tariffs and high taxes were implemented to restrict Indian textiles from being sold there, whereas raw cotton was imported from India without tariffs to British factories which manufactured textiles. This tariff policy was also well-known as ‘one­-way free trade’ policy which preached that what was good for England was considered to be good for India. To put the manufacturing industries on a sound footing at home, England pursued the policy of protection through the imposition of import duties. Moreover, the British forced the Indian farmers grow what was profitable to their company not to the farmers such as indigo, which caused a decreasing production of cotton. India was reduced to the position of supplier of raw material to British industries. The sellers and crafters suffered heavy losses and slowly Indian crafts loss their place in external markets.

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Furthermore, most of India’s deindustrialization was due to Britain’s productivity gains in textile and metal manufacture and the competition from machine-made goods. Improved British productivity, first in cottage production and then in factory goods, led to declining world textile and metal product prices, making their production in India increasingly uneconomic (Roy 2002). There was a steep uninhibited competition with developed foreign machine manufactures. The revolution in technology which gained momentum throughout the 19th century in the wake of the industrial revolution hastened the process of the decline of traditional handicrafts. Some goods produce in industries, when compared to the craftman’s goods, were much more cheaper and were also better in quality and quantity. These forces were reinforced by the British policy of sea freight rates decline, which served to foster trade and specialisation for both Britain and India. As a result, Britain first won over India’s export market and eventually took over much of its domestic market as well.
Some people argue that the weaknesses in the textile industrial structure’ itself must also be blamed for this decline of handicraft industries. No efforts were made to explore markets for products. India’s foreign trade was in the hands of foreigners. This meant that the Indian artisans and producers were at the mercy of foreign merchants so far as sales or demand propagation in overseas markets were concerned. This might be a reason why India textile industry failed to expand their markets during 18 century, but the British’s protectionist policies of Indian good was the main factor of India textile industry’s decline. The protectionist policies such as bans, high tariffs and high taxes was affecting the growth of India textile industry during British Raj, and taking over the world’s market during industrial revolution. Causing the decline of textile industry during 1757–1860.
By the end of1860, India had completed a century-long two-part transition from being a net exporter to a net importer of textiles. Indian de-industrialisation was about over.

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