Report: identify existing software inspection techniques or methods which

Report:
Software Quality Inspections In Comparison with Software Testing

Abstract
Software
inspection and testing plays essential and significant role in software quality
assurance. In this literature will discuss why we need testing and inspections
and what the process of these methodologies are. Inspecting and testing both
are valid with in verification and validation. As we know the basic theme of
these two process is to provide a quality product. By applying these two in the
right time we can save money, time and efforts as well. But while applying and
making decision we must have an idea about the strength and weaknesses of
testing and inspection as if it can help to resolve the 45% of the development
efforts dedicated in modifying defects. In this report we will discuss the role
and importance of inspection in comparison with testing in software quality
assurance.1,
2

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Introduction
Inspections are the important tool for quality assurance. Since this was presented
by Fagan at IBM in 1976, arguments exist as to which method should be adopted
to carry out the exercise, whether it should be paper-based or tool based, and
what reading technique should be used on the inspection document. A lot of work
have been done to determine the effectiveness of software products. Software
inspection is useful to detect the defects in any stage software development
methodology especially in early stages. Inspection of software defects can
improve the software product quality by decreasing rework cost and time from
documents, code, and other deliverables. The objective of this report is to
identify existing software inspection techniques or methods  which help practitioners and software
engineers to improve the software quality and to compare them according to some
quality attributes.1,
2

Need of inspection and testing
Most of the defects are found after testing that should have been found
earlier to cope the flaws of requirements. Defects that are found later in
testing will prove that it has been done on wrong or incorrect requirements and
as well increases the cost and time management. That’s why inspecting of the
documents should be taken from the first step to find out every single defect
in a systematic manner. The objective of these inspections is to find all the
defects at each phase and to proceed to the next phase with a completely
correct basis.
Testing is considered as one of the most expensive technique of finding defects
in software products as it is known it can consume more than 50% of the
software development cost, moreover testing couldn’t cover rework cost.
Reviewing each phases of development also take time. So the time spent during
testing much depends on what reliability level that are asked for.

Techniques and process of Inspection and
Testing
Inspection Methodologies3:
Following
re the models and methods of inspections discussed in different literature.
                                                  

                                                       Fig.No
1 Inspection Process4
 
(1) Fagan Methodology
FAGAN methodology is a complete software inspection methodology and
proposes proper sequence of steps and roles. Steps are: Pre and Post inspection
activities, inspection meetings and the roles are software inspector, software
tester, and moderator. Fagan’s methodology consists of six phases planning,
overview, preparation, examination, rework and follow-up. Firstly moderator at
planning phase identifies inspector’s role, distribution and verification of
inspection material etc. Secondly, an overview is done by the author. Thirdly
inspector prepares for meeting and role and it will also improve the process if
this preparation inadequate then moderator cancels it. Finally, an Author will
correct all defects which will be verified by the moderator.5

(2) Glib Methodology
Glib inspection methodology was developed by the Tom Glib in 1993, like
Fagan methodology there are six phases planning, overview, preparation,
examination, rework, follow-up etc. according to Glib inspection methodology
which is used by an organization is depend on its type of business , it’s up to
the customer’s choice whether he choose formal or semi-formal inspection
process. An extra step was added by Gilb to inspection process for the
improvement of software development process that will produce the document
which will be inspected by the inspector3

(3) Phased Inspection
Phase inspection was proposed by Knight & Myer (1993) where software
products are inspected in series of steps called phases where each phase has
the specific objective. At each phase product is examine, validate for specific
properties of a product. We cannot move forward until corrections are
completed. There are two types of phase single-inspector, multiple-inspector. A
single inspector uses a checklist that must satisfy the by each product.
Multiple-inspector phases are designed for such properties that cannot be
described through binary questions. In phase inspection, individual checking is
also done via meeting called reconciliation that provides various opportunities
for fault detection3

(4) Scenario Based Inspection Method
Literature shows that for the removal of defects various testing models,
automated and manual tools had been proposed, but still they are failed. Most
of the software inspection model, techniques focuses only on artifacts but, the
proposed model provides an inspection technique that removes some possible
defects in all phases of software development. It does focus not only each phase
of SDLC but it also concentrate on documents, deliverable working products and
conduct inspection process implicitly and gradually. Defect removal,
determination, and defect learning are three golden steps, where defect
learning is an interesting point basic factor of a scenario-based model. This
must be intelligent, its learning plan creates, executes according to founded
results. A case study was conducted for the evaluation of this model; it is
more efficient as compared to other traditional inspection processes3
 
(5) Defect Management Oriented Inspection
DEMAO was proposed for the improvement of software quality, generally, it
focuses on inspection process inconsistencies. There were four core components
of proposed models. Core components of proposed models were (1) defect
management, (2) cause and effects, (3) supervision function (4) inspection
function. Defect management is an important in any inspection process in DEMAO
it was done through relational database together with the knowledge base for maintenance
of common defect classification. Finding more defects in less time is a major
objective of an inspection process. Cause and effect dependencies can be
finding through the Knowledge base. In DEMAO Like traditional software
inspection Supervision function is not limited to coordination, it also defines
inspection session, develop team charter, approve inspectors’ profiles, and
arrange meetings for inconsistencies removal .internal and external inspection
id done by inspection function. These techniques increase efficiency by
decreasing execution time and increase effectiveness by discovering more error
and defects. . The most effective features of this model are a reduction in
time by providing facilities and formatted documents and disadvantage of was
limited on flexibility3.

Inspection
Methodologies

                                          Steps of
working 

Planning

Overview

Preparation

Inspection

Meeting

Follow-up

Rework

Fagan
Methodology

  yes

 yes

yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

yes

Glib Methodology

  yes

 yes

yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

yes

Scenario Based
Inspection Method

  yes

 yes

yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

yes

Phased
Inspection

  yes

 yes

yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

yes

DEMAO

Develop and
Maintain Checklists, Defect Management, Cause and Effect Dependence,
Competitive Advantage, Supervision Functions

                                     Table.No.1 Inspection Parameters For Different Methods3

Testing Methodologies:
Different literature covers important test techniques:
Black Box Testing Versus White Box
Testing

(1) Black Box Testing6:
This type of testing Perform the tests which showcase all functional
requirements of a program. This method of testing covers the internal structure
of the product that is not familiar to testers also known as behavioral testing.
The test cases can show presence or absence of classes of errors.

 

                                                   Fig.No.2 Testing Methods7

 

(2)
White Box Testing 6:
This
type of testing Perform the tests which showcase all functional requirements of
a program. This method of testing covers the internal structure of the product that
is familiar to testers also known as clear testing, glass testing or
transparent testing.

Testing
Methodologies

                                       Steps
of working 

 

 

 

 

 

White
Box Testing

 

 

 

 

 

Black
Box Testing

 

 

 

 

 

                                  Table.No.2
Testing Parameters for Different Methods

Significance

Inspections
focuses on finding faults, whereas testing mainly focuses on finding failures
that occurs due to faults. As being more complimentary to each other they are
finding flaws for different areas rather than competing each other. If developers
want to develop quality product software inspection can reduce the product defects
to 80% as it has been done keenly and properly in a correct manner. The traditional
stated way of researchers to perform inspection is to make testing first then
inspection, But the new phenomenon is do it later.

Discussion  
Both testing and inspection are useful in the development of quality product.
When the process done carefully and properly it is successful in finding
defects at the appropriate stage of development. But it is not unfair to say combining
inspection with testing, auditing and verification is helpful in improving the
quality product. Inspection is considered as a efficient method for quality product.
It should be supported by the organization management and not to take criticism
personally and look for defects.

Conclusion
It
is found if end users are satisfied both techniques are up to mark but still
have pros and cons. They are utilized for various reasons and in various stages
during the development of the project. Every strategy has its favorable
position and method for moving toward the look for ends. Their respective
strengths help finding different kinds of defects. So far Inspections are
considered as a better way for finding defects in design, requirements
documents, source code etc. Testing is the main method for finding operational
imperfections, and to ensure that non-practical necessities are functioning as
they should. Errors requirements documents or in the source code can’t be discovered
via testing. The individuals carrying out an inspection may not have the
necessary knowledge about the product domain or they may be overloaded with
information in the initial stage of the inspection, etc. then defects can
easily be missed.

 

References

 

1.         Akinola, O.S. and A.O. Osofisan, An Empirical Comparative Study of Checklist based and Ad Hoc Code
Reading Techniques in a Distributed Groupware Environment. arXiv preprint
arXiv:0909.4260, 2009.

2.         Evertsson, G., Inspection vs. testing. Software Verification and Validation, 2002.

 

3.         Qazi, A.M., S. Shahzadi, and M.
Humayun, A Comparative Study of Software
Inspection Techniques for Quality Perspective. International Journal of
Modern Education and Computer Science, 2016. 8(10): p. 9.

4.         https://www.google.com.pk/search?rlz=1C2CHZL_enSA736SA736&dcr=0&biw=1366&bih=662&tbm=isch&sa=1&ei=IgJYWrPOKYP36ATpj4OwDA&btnG=Search&q=+software+inspection+process#imgrc=QtnQLT0PXCfy3M:.

5.         Phongpaibul, M., An Analytical Comparison between Software Inspection and Pair
Development.

6.         Jovanovi?, I., Software testing methods and techniques. The IPSI BgD Transactions
on Internet Research, 2006. 30.

7.         Jamil, M.A., et al. Software Testing Techniques: A Literature
Review. in Information and
Communication Technology for The Muslim World (ICT4M), 2016 6th International
Conference on. 2016. IEEE.

 

 

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