Socioeconomic succeed and collect higher payoffs than the students

Socioeconomic status (SES) is an economic and sociological combined total measure of a person’s work experience and of an individual’s or family’s economic and social position in relation to others, based on income, education, and occupation.The Idea of an academic achievement gap between minority and majority students is one of the most urgent issues in american education. A study done by Dixson (2017) looked at four psychosocial variables that have been associated with the academic achievement of minority students, for the purpose of the question we will only be looking at two, Grit and Growth MindsetGrit is defined as one’s perseverance and passion for accomplishing long-term goals. It is made of two interrelated subfactors: consistency of interests and perseverance of effort. consistency of interests refers to how stable ones interests are over time and perseverance of effort refers to how long and hard one is willing to work towards one’s goals even when setbacks occur. Studies have shown that grit is associated with success in stressful competitions, educational attainment and academic success, retention in the United States Military Academy, emotional stability, teacher effectiveness, success in life and conscientiousness (Duckworth, Quinn 2009). When looking at Grit and academic achievement in relation to African Americans several studies have indicated that grit may be a pathway to increase African American achievement. A study done by Sule Alan, a professor at the university of essex found that elementary school students who were trained on the importance of putting effort toward accomplishing one’s goals and learning from their mistakes were about 10% more likely to attempt more challenging academic tasks, prefer challenging academic tasks even after failure, and succeed and collect higher payoffs than the students not trained. There are two types of mindsets when it comes to learning. A growth mindset and a fixed mindset. A fixed mindset can be defined as the belief that intelligence is a static trait. Individuals with a growth mindset believe intelligence can be developed over time in various ways, such as through effort, practice, and instruction. A growth mindset has been found to be associated with high standards, high life satisfaction,  high levels of happiness, increased persistence, and effort in school related activities (Dweck, 2007). In the academic domain, growth mindset has been associated with academic achievement in several studies. A growth mindset was associated with students perceiving academic setbacks as an indication of a lack of effort and increased persistence on academic tasks after difficulty. Instead of giving up after failing a task they only sought to push harder. A study by Dweck (1998) found that after experiencing difficulty, a growth mindset was associated with either equal or increased academic performance after controlling for ability. A year long study by Grant and Dweck (2003) found that college students with a growth mindset were associated with more effort and time commitment, higher academic achievement in the course overall, and improvement in exam grades. The study suggests that having a growth mindset increases academic achievement through increasing motivation and effort, thus increasing SES. Several researchers have suggested that growth mindset may be a pathway to close the achievement gap and increase the achievement of African American students. A study by Good (2003) composed mostly of Hispanic and African American middle school students found that those who received weekly emails about having a growth mindset throughout the year performed better on state achievement tests.Low SES students are underrepresented socially, economically, and politically. Researchers have found that this group of students is less likely to attend college, is more likely to attend less selective institutions when they do enroll, and has unique college choice processes. Many scholars believe that threats to financial aid availability may be closing off access for and reducing the ability for low SES students to use them. A college education is seen as a means of escape and a pathway of social standing since colonial times for low SES students. Scholars have found that students from low SES backgrounds have lower educational goals,attendance rates, and educational attainment than their peers from high SES backgrounds prior to and during college. Low SES parents are more likely to view a high-school diploma as the norm for their children than high SES parents, where a bachelor’s or advanced degree is considered the norm. A study by M. Walpole (2003) concluded that students from low SES backgrounds “possess different cultural capitals and habiti than do all students or high SES students, and that attending college does not necessarily indicate that a student has risen economically or socially to a level similar to that of his or her peers.” Students from higher SES backgrounds continue to have advantages. It has been found that students from low SES backgrounds who attend four-year colleges and universities work more, study less, are less involved, and report lower GPAs than their high SES peers.The quality of schools varies with the socioeconomic conditions of their surrounding communities. College-readiness and high school pathways occupy a central part of the current administration’s American Graduation Initiative. Over the course of the previous fifty years, the American education system has seen growth in educational aspirations,high school participation rates, and the variety of educational options available to students. Despite these gains, problems in college access remain an issue in American society, especially among low-income, Black, and Hispanic students. High school graduates from lower socioeconomic backgrounds who do not go to college earn approximately three times less than those who go on to earn professional or advanced degreesWhite (1982) states schools bring little influence to bear on a child’s academic achievement  and that is independent of his background and general social context. White defined SES as the occupation of the husband, source of income, quality of housing, and status of dwelling area to arrive at a score that is converted to one of five social classes. White looked at specific influences in his study such as: income of family, education of parents, occupation of head of house, home atmosphere, dwelling value, school resources, subjective judgement. White concluded SES is positively but only weakly correlated with academic achievement. In such situations, measures of SES can be expected to account for less than 5 % of the variance in students’ academic achievement.

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