The fire, the passage of smoke through a building.

The
BCA (Building Code of Australia) consists of three volumes.

Volume
I

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Volume
II

Volume
III

 

Volume
II consists of 3 sections.

Section
1

Section
2

Section
3

 

Section
3 gives the required information on the Acceptable Construction Provisions.

•      3.0
      How to Use Section

•      3.1
      Site Preparation

•      3.2
      Footings and foundation Slabs

•      3.3
      Building Masonry

•      3.4
      Framing

•      3.5
      Roof and Wall Cladding

•      3.6
      Glazing

•      3.7
      Fire Safety

•      3.8       Health
and Amenity- – Facilities, Light, Ventilation, Sound Insulation

•      3.9        Safe
Movement and Access – Staircase Construction, Balustrades, Swimming pool

            Access

•      3.10
    Additional Construction Requirements –High
wind regions, Earthquake prone regions

•      3.11
    Structural Design Manuals

•      3.12     Energy
Efficiency

Fire Active
measures is to control smoke spreading, detection and communicate the fire
outbreak occurred. It is a proactive approach to extinguish fire.

Fire Break Glass Alarm:
To activate fire alarm and alert the fire brigade easily. The red panel on the
wall with a small button, when pressed will contact the Fire Brigade. 

Fire Control Systems: This
is a hub of the fire alarm system in a building. It will be located in the
ground floor which will be near an entrance or exit close to the nearest road.
The panel can be located in a cabinet/wall. There will be a number of lights
and buttons on the panel which is an indication that fire sensor has been activated
in that building.

Fire Doors: To minimize
the spread of fire, the passage of smoke through a building. These will be
automatically operated by heat activated mechanisms and smoke detectors.

Smoke and Thermal Fire Detectors: The detection system sense either heat
or smoke or both. Smoke detectors are being used extensively because of their
earlier warning of an emergency. Smoke detectors are used to activate fire
doors to isolate zones in the building.

Portable Fire Extinguishers

These are used to extinguish a small fire in its initial stage.

Fire Hose Reels & Fire Hydrants

Canvas fire hoses are attached
to fire hydrant points which are installed for use by the Fire Brigade. They
should not be used by public, only trained.

Passive
Fire Protection

The steel members when exposed to elevated temperatures in a fire
situation, the rise in temperature is to be reduced. Buchanan, (2001), states
that fire resistance rating of a protected steel member which is determined by
calculations and depends on factors such as properties of protection material
and fire temperature, there should be some fire resistance rating.

Concrete encasement: Concrete in the formwork housing the steel members,
which also increases the cost of construction.

Board systems: These are developed using calcium silicate or gypsum
plaster. Calcium silicate boards are designed to remain in place during the
fire accidents Gypsum boards have good insulating properties resistant to fire
because of the presence of water in the board This reaction provides a time
delay when the board reaches about 100 °C, but reduces the strength of the
board after exposure to fire.

Spray-on protection system: Cement-based with form of glass or
cellulosic fibrous reinforcing to hold the material together.

Intumescent paint is a special paint that swells into a thick char
when it is exposed to elevated temperatures enhancing the fire rating of the
steel member beneath.

Using timber boards:  Encasing structural members with timber is one
of the passive fire protection. The timber should be seasoned and a
thermosetting adhesive is used to fix the boarding over the structural members.

Concrete filling: This is used for hollow steel sections to improve
their fire performance. The main advantage of this is no need of external
protection and this can increase the load bearing capacity of the
section/member.

Water filling system: This works with similar principle of concrete
filling, here hollow steel sections are filled with water. The water filled has
some additives added to prevent corrosion. It requires plumbing systems for
water flow in the members by. It is only used in special structures and is
expensive than other systems.

Flame shields: This protects external steelwork from radiation. The
flames exit through the window openings. Architectural claddings are installed
to form the shields

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