This male. The age of the participants ranges from

This
part of the research  deals with the  description of research design, the
participants of the study, the instrument used for collecting data, the
procedures of data collection and the methods of data analysis.

 Research Design

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            This study is designed with a qualitative
research design. The main goal was to find challenges in the classroom and the
strategies of teachers utilize to overcome those tests that they
encountered.  This research method can
provide responses in the questions who, what, when, where and how-related to a
certain study problem. There are several ways to carry out qualitative
research: grounded theory, case studies, ethnographic and phenomenology
research, but the most appropriate method for this study was phenomenological
study to find out the challenges encounters by teachers when teaching children
in diverse levels and how they cope up to overcome them.

Sampling Design
and sample size

 

In this study, the researcher chose
purposive sampling. Purposive sampling is a sampling technique in which researcher
depends on his/ her personal judgment when selecting members of population to
partake in the study. The goal of purposive sampling was to get information
from selected participants. The informants were selected for a reason obtained
to the purposes of the subject.

Participants

The
participants of this study were teachers. There are 15 participants taken as a
sample and they were all teaching at Cauayan North Central School. There are 14females
and 1 male. The age of the participants ranges from 22 to 47 years. The length
of teaching ranges from 1 year to 29 years. Most of them are teaching all the
subjects. There are eight (8) teachers III, three (3) teachers II, three (3)
volunteer teachers and one (1) a master teacher 1. The researchers chose these
participants because of getting experience based reflections on the challenges
and strategies in classroom management from these participants’ perspective
which make this study significant and as well as relevant in its data finding
and answering  the research question set
by the researchers.

 

Research Instrument

In
gathering data for the study, the researchers used the guide questions for
interview as the main instrument.

To
allow the collection of detailed information from the teachers about the
challenges and strategies of teachers in classroom management, interview method
was seen suitable because it allows the participants to speak out their
opinions, practices, feelings, insight, and experiences about their challenges
and strategies in classroom management through the use of probing questions.

             With interview method, it was possible to
asked follow-up question in order to increase richer information to the
participants. Also, the participants were available to clarify unclear
statements and immediate concerns (Gall & Borg 2007). Therefore
interactions were made possible to build relationship and trust to the
participants.

The
interview guide question contains two parts: first is the personal information
of the participants and the second part is the challenges and strategies of
teachers in classroom management.

The
instrument that the researchers used in conducting this study was adopted from
the previous researchers, and approved by experts. This study created into
account on all matters related to validity. During the groundwork of the
interview guide, which was operated in the study, the questions were examined
and discussed. It has been formulated and developed. After the formulation of
the instruments, it has been checked by our adviser, Ms. Arriane Kris E.
Maramag- Manalastas. After some recommendations and suggestions were
incorporated, the researchers prepared the instrument, conducted, retrieved and
analysed the data gathered.

Data Collection

            Following the interview process, the
researcher wrote a permission letter for the participants and then oriented
them about the interview to be conducted. The participants set the time and
also the place to gather information about the challenges and strategies in
classroom management.  The researcher
agreed with the suggestion of the participants regarding the time and place
where the interview was to be conducted. In conducting the interview with the
participants, the researcher asked questions and transcribed the answers of the
participants. Audiotapes were also used to gather data.  The ideal of transcribing the interviews is
to gather information which is thematic. After the interview, the researcher
began to read and hear the gathered data repeatedly to point out the ideas
about challenges and strategies in classroom management from the participants’
answers. Using pen and paper, the researcher wrote down all the information
that has similar ideas.

Data Analysis

            In
obtaining the useful information, the researcher used data analysis. Data
analysis is the procedure of systematizing the data collected for example into
categories (Kothari, 2008). The researchers performed initial data analysis
after every interview to assess if there was information essential for the
study that was missing. After the process of data collection the researchers
transcribed the raw data. Transcription is the process of converting audio
recording and interview notes into texts (Johnson and Christiansen 2012).

After
that, the researchers used thematic analysis to arrange the transcribed data.
Thematic analysis and arrangement is the process that classifies, analyses, and
reports the existence of themes in data collected from the investigation area. The
researchers constantly compared segments of data between each other of the
interview transcripts, which helped to identify similar and different points of
view on a particular category and generate further concepts and subcategories.
The researchers used different markers to highlight segments of the text that
dealt with specific issues that were relevant to the research study. The method
helps in categorizing themes and their subcategories.

 

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