To a whole text. Means that a text is

To know about
the interconnected among contrastive linguistics, translation studies and corpus-based
approach, the initial important thing to know is the definition about those. Contrastive
linguistics is one of a branch of linguistics that distinguish on similarities
and differences in the language structure of two or more kinds of languages and
bring out for theoritical or practical purposes (Bugarski.1997:77). The focuses
at the different degree, for example phonetics, syntax, and text linguistics. While
translation studies, according to Holmes in his well known paper The Name and Nature of Translation Studies
said that translation studies has two major issues: first it used to represent the
phenomena of translating and translation and second it used to established
general principles by how of which these phenomena can be explained and
predicted. Theoretical concepts in the field of
pragmatics have been introduced into Translation Studies. It can be found in the form of
speech act theory, cooperative principles, and relevance theory. So in here,
contrastive linguistics is a part of system to create a text. While translation studies is a text, a whole text. Means that
a text is consist by many elements and system to make it. A text
consists of syntax, semantics, pragmatics, discourse analysis and many more. Translation is not about the system, it’s about the text,
while contrastive linguistics is about system. 
Take one of the translation machines such as
Google Translate or Bing Translator. They are the examples of system. Those machines can’t critize what exactly the core or the aim of the text is. They just translate from source language to target
language only. They merely change the
language but they rule out the aim of the text.

Corpus-based approach has proved to be useful in all of these types of translation studies (applied, descriptive, and theoritical). The corpora can contribute to applied translation
studies in the three major ways, the first of which relates to corpus-assisted
translating, secondly, corpora can be used to aid translation teaching and training, thirdly, corpora, especially aligned parallel
corpora, are essential for the development of translation technology. As Bowker (1998: 631) notes, “higher quality
with respect to subject field understanding, correct term choice and idiomatic
expressions can be found with corpus-assisted translations.” Secondly, corpora can be used to support translation teaching and training, because it can help students to
develop their “awareness”, “reflectiveness” and “resourcefulness”, which are distinguish
from those unskilled amateurs translator (Bernardini 1997). Thirdly, corpora, especially aligned parallel
corpora, are essential for the development of translation technology such as
machine translation systems, and computer-supported translation tools, translation memories and terminology banks

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In translation studies, corpora can be used for
different kinds and for different purposes as well. For instance, to cruising how
an idea in one language is conveyed in another language, thus providing
indirect evidence to the study of translation processes, pararell corpora will
be used in this matter. Corpora of this kind are necessary for building statistical or example-based
machine translation systems, and for the development of bilingual lexicons and
translation memories. Even, parallel corpora are very useful tool for translators. Multilingual comparable corpora are
useful in improving the translator’s subject field understanding and improving
the quality of translation in terms of fluency, correct term choice and
idiomatic expressions in the chosen field. They may as well be used
to build terminology banks. Translational corpora provide primary evidence
for product-oriented Translation Studies and for research of translation universal. If
corpora of this kind are encoded with sociolinguistic and cultural parameters,
they may as well be used to study the socio-cultural environment of translations. They may as well be used in combination with a parallel corpus to form  so-called translation evaluation corpus that
help translator trainers or critics to evaluate translations more effectively
and objectively.

Corpora have greatly benefited translation and contrastive studies. Corpus-based translation and contrastive
linguistic studies have also significantly enlarge the scope of corpus linguistic research. Meanwhile contrastive linguistics and translation
studies have traditionally been accepted as two separate disciplines within
applied linguistics, there are many contact points between both of them and with the common
corpus-based approach and the usually shared type of data (e.g. comparable and
parallel corpora). Corpus-based translation and contrastive linguistic studies have become
even more closely interconnected (cf. Ramon Garcia 2002).

 

References
:

Bernardini, Silvia. 1997. A „trainee?
translator?s perspective on corpora. Paper presented at the conference of
Corpus Use and Learning to Translate. Bertinoro, November 1997

Bowker, Lynn. 1998. Using specialized
native-language corpora as a translation resource: A pilot study

Ramon, Noelia.2002. ResearchGate: “Contrastive Linguistics
and Translation Studies Intterconnected: The Corpus-based Approach.” accessed on January
8, 2018

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