VEHICLE POLLUTION AND EFFECTS
With the ongoing advancement of technology and industrialization, human beings are enjoying more and more amenities and comforts. In parallel, environmental damage has also occurred by over-use of technology. One of the major achievements of modern technology is automobile which has made great contributions to the development of modern society because of their affordability. Owing to their sharp growth, automobile is emerging as the greatest urban air pollution source in the developing world. Vehicles emit pollutant gases such as hydrocarbons(HC), carbon-dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide(CO), volatile organic compounds(VOC), nitrogen oxide(NOx), Sulfur dioxide (SO2), and particulate matter(PM) which are causes of global warming, smog, greenhouse effects and acid rain. Increased automobiles simply mean increased air, noise pollution and escalated number of accidents. This essay will discuss on vehicle pollution effects and evaluate a various effective solution to mitigate the adverse impacts of motor vehicle use.
In the last few decades, Automobile sector has been growing sharply and we are mostly using two main types of vehicles petrol and diesel which are flammable and toxic. The internal combustion of diesel and petrol fuel in engines emit unfavorable substances. Carbon-monoxide(CO), nitrogen oxide(NOx), and un-burnt hydrocarbon(HC)are generally invisible gases. Carbon-monoxide(CO) outcomes from the incomplete combustion which is harmful to human and animal beings that breathe it. A draft study of course choices revealed that “Carbon monoxide can cause harmful health effects by reducing the amount of oxygen reaching the body’s organs (like the heart and brain) and tissues. At extremely high levels, carbon monoxide can cause death (carbon monoxide poisoning)”. Hydrocarbons react in the presence of nitrogen oxides and sunlight to form ground-level ozone, a major component of smog. Ozone irritates the eyes, damages the lungs, and aggravates respiratory problems. Carbon dioxide does not directly impair human health, but it is a “greenhouse gas” that traps the earth’s heat and contributes to the potential for global warming. Myriad number of people in the world die each year due to heart and lung diseases that result from air pollution. Electric vehicle is one of the greatest solution of vehicle pollution because of their mechanical simplicity and the absence of direct pollutant emissions. In Hybrid vehicle designs, the engine supplies average power while batteries supply surge power for acceleration and absorb power during braking. Running under steady state conditions at its most efficient point, the engine in a hybrid vehicle could have very low emission and such vehicles could more than double the fuel efficiency of present vehicle designs
There are several cause of vehicle emission such as driving patterns, traffic speed and congestion, by the age, type, size and condition of vehicles engine and the most importantly, by the emission control equipment, technology and its maintenance. The HEI review panel considered that there was sufficient evidence to conclude that exposure to traffic-related air pollution causes exacerbation of asthma. The evidence linking exposure to traffic-related air pollution to several other health outcomes was weaker, but considered suggestive of a causal relationship. These outcomes were onset of childhood asthma, non-asthma respiratory symptoms, impaired lung function, total and cardiovascular mortality and cardiovascular morbidity
Technical and economic measures to discourage the use of private vehicles and encourage the use of public transport modes are essential for reducing traffic congestion and controlling urban sprawl. Appropriate design of roads, intersections and traffic control systems can eliminate bottlenecks, accommodate public transport and smooth traffic flow at the moderate cost which helps to diminish urban air pollution and improve traffic safety (Faiz et al.,1996).
Pollutant gases produce from the huge number of motor-vehicle add to a remarkable pollution. Toxic pollutants have been related with perilous adverse health effects
Motor vehicle emission can be controlled most effectively by designing vehicles to have low emissions from the beginning. Advanced emission controls technology can reduce hydro-carbon and carbon-monoxide emissions by more than 95% and emissions of nitrogen oxides by 80%
Stopping the growth in motor vehicle use is neither feasible nor desirable, given the economic and other benefits of increased mobility. The challenge then is to manage the growth of motorized transport so as to maximize its benefits while minimizing its adverse impacts on the environment and on society. Such a management strategy will generally require economic and technical measures to limit environmental impacts, together with public and private investments in vehicles and transport infrastructure.